Hate crime caused by ignorance, says transgender builder
23 September 2013 Last updated at 18:34 BST
Four out of 10 hate crime victims in Wales know their abuser, while nearly a third think about moving house to escape the crime, a new study says.
Research by Race Equality First and Cardiff University also shows one in five of those abused (18%) considers leaving the country.
The study will feed into a new Welsh government plan to tackle incidents.
Samantha Bowler from Rhydyfelin, near Pontypridd, is a construction plant operator and a qualified teacher trainer who used to be a man.
She says she suffered hate crime immediately when she began her gender transition.