Scottish independence referendum: Experts examine the claims

With the debate on Scotland's future entering "referendum year", the "yes" and "no" sides are intensifying their campaigns.

But what are their messages and how are they being viewed, not only by each other, but by experts, commentators and academics?

Throughout the coming months, the BBC news website will be picking out statements from both sides of the debate and asking a panel of experts to analyse the claims.

Here, we look at some of the key messages in the UK government's series of papers arguing for the Union.


UK government paper on Currency and Monetary Policy: "Scotland and the rest of the UK are economically well placed in the current UK arrangements. Independence would change this assessment, even if an independent Scotland were to remain part of a sterling currency zone. Fiscal independence would make the monetary policy of the Bank of England less well suited to Scottish economic conditions."

PRO-UNION: Better Together leader and former UK chancellor Alistair Darling, says: "A currency union can only work if you have increased economic and political union - the very thing that nationalism is dead against."

PRO-INDEPENDENCE: John Swinney, Scottish finance secretary, says: "The benefits of a currency union are clear for both sides in terms of issues like promoting investment, eliminating transaction costs, reducing borrowing costs and facilitating the movement of labour and capital, and we welcome the governor's recognition of these benefits."

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Angus Robertson

In a formal currency union the Bank of England would continue to deliver a single overall monetary policy”

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EXPERT - Angus Armstrong, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, says: "If Scotland becomes independent then the economies of Scotland and the rest of the UK are likely to diverge: for one thing, Scotland would become a large oil exporting nation and the rest of the UK would continue as an oil importer.

"In a formal currency union the Bank of England would continue to deliver a single overall monetary policy.

"Given that the rest of the UK would be ten times the size of Scotland, under any reasonable voting arrangement it is fairly clear to see in whose interests policy would be set. If an independent Scotland had its own currency there would be scope for setting its own policy."

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City of London

UK government paper on Business and Microeconomic Framework: "Splitting the UK market, by introducing a border of whatever form, will introduce a barrier to the free flow of goods, capital and labour to the detriment of firms, workers and consumers in both states and risks making it more challenging to attract overseas investors."

PRO-UNION: UK Business Secretary Vince Cable, says: "Breaking up Scotland's most lucrative market would destabilise enterprise and potentially put growth and jobs at risk. My message to the Scottish business community is that we're stronger and more secure together."

PRO-INDEPENDENCE - Fergus Ewing, Scottish Enterprise Minister, says: "There is so much scaremongering going on that people are shutting off. We want businesses to succeed - we want regulation that is appropriate and not cumbersome."

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David Gibbons-Wood

Predicting the winners and losers is not easy, but change would occur as Scotland, and the rest of the UK, became less integrated”

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EXPERT - David Gibbons-Wood, Robert Gordon University,says: "The UK is one of the most highly integrated economic unions in the world and the establishment of a border between Scotland and the rest of the UK could be criticised using basic economic theory.

"Splitting such an integrated market is generally perceived to be against the interest of consumers and against the economic consensus of the last 60 years. A set of border controls post yes is in neither sides interests, and no one is currently proposing a border in the sense of checkpoints.

"A border need not be physical, it could be based on differing regulations, differing income tax or more stringent labour laws. Any of these factors could create a differential between prices paid by someone in Newcastle relative to someone in Glasgow. Predicting the winners and losers is not easy, but change would occur as Scotland, and the rest of the UK, became less integrated. The first small signs of differing prices would come in the increase of postage costs from mail order companies or eBay traders based in England. Similarly, the existence of separate countries might make people view working north or south of the border as no longer viable. This may exacerbate skills shortages as labour markets become fragmented, but it depends upon the perceptions people have if there is a yes vote rather than any actual barriers.

"Border differences between an independent Scotland and the rest of the UK, will be similar to those between Denmark and Germany if both nations remain part of the EU. A vote by the people of the rest of UK to leave the EU would make the debate about borders a central issue to Scotland's future economic wellbeing and connectivity. The danger for Scotland is that a democratically separate 'rest of the UK' outwith the EU might have very different policies on immigration and trade, resulting in significant border restrictions."

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RBS logo

UK government paper on Financial Services and Banking: "As part of the UK, firms and individuals benefit from a world-leading financial services sector and a large, integrated domestic market for financial services, with clear and effective arrangements for protecting consumers. This position would be put at risk if Scotland were to become independent."

PRO-UNION: Former Scottish secretary Michael Moore, says: "If you put a border in the middle of that market, if you introduce different tax and regulatory regimes, it's wishful thinking to think it's not going to have any effect on the range of products you and I can buy to protect our families and our futures."

PRO-INDEPENDENCE: Deputy Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon, says: "We see other small European countries that, right now, have mortgage rates lower than people get here in Scotland and it is also the case that increasingly we are looking at global action, European wide and and global-wide action, to make sure that we never experience again what the banking sector experienced some years ago."

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Piotr Jaworski

The clarity of arrangements for protecting consumers should not be very different than the one which governs the UK market now”

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EXPERT - Piotr Jaworski, Edinburgh Napier University, says: "If Scotland becomes independent with its own separate financial services sector, the clarity of arrangements for protecting consumers should not be very different than the one which governs the UK market now. Assuming that Scotland will be aiming at the membership of the European Union such arrangements must be in line with the EU system, which does not leave much space for differentiations among the Member States or Candidate Countries.

"However, effectiveness of such arrangements depends on the size of the market behind it, which in the case of an independent Scotland will be much smaller. This is especially true in the case of administrative costs of such a system: it seems that on average they must be higher. On the other hand, leaving such costs aside and assuming that Scotland will aim at small and medium size banking serving mainly the domestic economy it should not matter too much. All of this is also true in the long term while as in the short term uncertainty, which must be attributed to the process of creating such a system, would adversely affect both efficiency and clarity."

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UK government paper Science and Research: "The UK is ranked second only to the US in terms of world-class research, and the UK's share of the world's top 1% most cited publications is on an upward trend. If Scotland were to become independent, its continued success in these areas could not be guaranteed."

PRO-UNION: UK Universities Minister David Willetts, says: "British science across the UK is great. Edinburgh science is great, Glasgow science is great, all the other ones are as well. If the best you can say is you would strain every sinew to try to keep the same thing as you had pre-independence then the game hardly seems worth the effort - why not just stick with what you have got, which everyone says is working?"

PRO-INDEPENDENCE: Scottish Education Secretary Mike Russell, says: "We have more world-class universities per head of population than any other country and it is precisely because of that global excellence that in an independent Scotland will continue to attract valuable investment, research funding and students from around the globe."

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Roger Cook

While the government paper is accurate to note that the relative apportionment to Scotland (roughly 10%) is higher than Scotland's share of GDP it should be noted that Scottish universities are much less dependent on this source of income than their English equivalents”

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EXPERT - Roger Cook, The Scotland Institute,says: "There is practically no evidence for this claim which really is little but an assertion. The bulk of research funding received by Scotland's universities is allocated by a fully devolved process as of now.

"To make sense of the government claim, first the ratio of non-Funding Council research income to total research income needs to be calculated. This means breaking the research funding down into the difference between that received from the relevant funding council and the amount of research funding received from all other sources (research councils, charities, industry etc).

"The existing research councils are constituted on a UK basis. They allocated £298m to Scotland and £2,977m to England for 2011/12. In other words, while the government paper is accurate to note that the relative apportionment to Scotland (roughly 10%) is higher than Scotland's share of GDP it should be noted that Scottish universities are much less dependent on this source of income than their English equivalents.

"There is no evidence that the SFC is planning to reduce the core research grants to Scottish universities. In the case of independence, it is possible that the current UK wide Research Council system would cease, it is equally possible that a joint system could be created. Even if all the current funding was lost from the Scottish sector, total research income per member of staff would remain above that in the rUK

"There is no reason to believe that the charitable sector funding for research in Scotland would be affected by independence. The government paper makes a series of strange claims, such as loss of NHS funded research, which takes no account of the reality that most NHS funded research in Scotland comes from the Scottish NHS; loss of EU funding for research, or of the loss of international networks when many academics work outside their country of origin already.

"The only valid claim in the paper is the loss of access to Research Council grants (depending on the post-independence arrangements). As noted this funding stream is less important for Scottish universities."

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UK government paper on Security: "Police Scotland would lose automatic access to the capabilities and resources of MI5, SIS and GCHQ and the UK's wider intelligence analysis capabilities. An independent Scottish state would have to build up its own infrastructure because new capabilities would be required."

PRO-UNION: UK Home Secretary Theresa May, says: "I don't think it is possible to guarantee that the threat would diminish with a separate Scotland, but what would change would be the scale of capability that Scotland would have access to."

PRO-INDEPENDENCE: Scottish Justice Secretary Kenny MacAskill, says: "An independent Scotland will have first rate security arrangements to counter any threats we may face. And we will continue to work in very close collaboration with the rest of the UK and international partners on security and intelligence matters, which is in everyone's interests."

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Bill Buchanan

No matter which way it goes, every nation, every region, every city and every organisation needs to understand where its key risks are around its infrastructure, and try to mitigate against these”

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EXPERT - Bill Buchanan, Edinburgh Napier Universitysays: "Scotland is a small nation, and, in an independent Scotland, it is likely to have a different threat profile than the UK generally. For us, the focus is likely to be in the protection of our key business sectors, such as oil and gas, the finance sector, education, and health and social care. It is most likely that our defences will focus on protecting citizen rights against threats, while trying to enable increased access to data, and providing citizens with more control over it. Through increased devolution, Scotland has made major strides towards this, in a way which the UK has tended to struggled with.

"No matter what happens, the nation is becoming increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure. This is highlighted by certain key internet routes from Scotland to the rest of the world. Any problems with these routes would have a major impact on both businesses and the public sector.

"Scotland mainly depends on its internet and wireless communication infrastructure on route that go through London. Any issues around power outages in London could cause significant problems in Scotland. No matter which way the vote goes, Scotland needs to understand its critical infrastructure and the routes for the provision of energy and internet connectivity.

"In conclusion, the ball has been rolling for a more developed information infrastructure in Scotland, and nothing should stop this. While the nation may lose out on the connections to the larger UK intelligence network, it could gain from a connection to a large international one. No matter which way it goes, every nation, every region, every city and every organisation needs to understand where its key risks are around its infrastructure, and try to mitigate against these.

"At present Scotland has an under-investment in its cyber defence, and no matter which way the country votes, there needs to be more funding around this by the Scottish government."

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Shipyards on Clyde

UK government paper on Defence: "Companies based in an independent Scottish state would no longer be eligible for contracts that the UK chose to place or compete domestically for national security reasons; and where they could continue to compete they would be pitching for business in a competitive international market dominated by major economic powers. Other than procurement activity undertaken during the World Wars, the UK has not had a complex warship built outside the UK since the start of the 20th century at least."

PRO-UNION: UK Defence Secretary Philip Hammond, says: "The debate on the future of defence in Scotland is too important to be ignored, or brushed under the carpet, or fobbed off with half-baked sound bite policies which are financially and strategically incoherent."

PRO-INDEPENDENCE: Scottish government minister Keith Brown, says: "We would increase the number of defence jobs in Scotland, from around 11,000 to 15,000 and we believe that's the optimum number for the kind of things which we want to see a defence force in Scotland carry out - not illegal wars."

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Phillips O'Brien

The final point that needs to be made about independence and shipbuilding is that if the union breaks up, the future of all future shipbuilding plans will come under review”

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EXPERT - Phillips O'Brien, University of Glasgow, says: "The real problem that an independent Scotland would have in securing warship building from the rest of the UK (rUK) is political. States overwhelmingly choose to build their warships in their own shipyards, even if the cost is considerably higher than that offered by outside companies. For many years the UK has shown a willingness to pay this domestic premium, only opting for outside construction - most famously in the case of the next generation of military fuel tankers now being built in Korea - when there was no British yard capable of doing the work.

"That being said, the recent decision to concentrate the shipbuilding of the new Type 26 frigates on the Clyde, while reducing the capabilities of Portsmouth, means that it is almost certain that Scotland would be able to build the new class of vessel at lower cost than anywhere in the rUK. It is therefore not inconceivable for an independent Scotland to secure some work building these vessels. However, to get the work, one assumes that an independent Scotland would have to place orders for the purchase of military equipment from the rUK for approximately the same amount. In other words, it is very difficult to imagine that the rUK, after Scotland decided to leave the Union, would then turn around and spend much money employing Scots, unless it received money for orders in return.

"The final point that needs to be made about independence and shipbuilding is that if the union breaks up, the future of all future shipbuilding plans will come under review. Right now the UK is still trying to maintain enough military force to justify its position as a global power with a seat on the UN Security Council. A diminished rUK, however, could opt for a much reduced global role with reduced capability. In that case, there simply might not be many ships built anywhere."

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European Union
EU flag

UK government paper on EU and International Issues: "Scotland will receive €228 million more in structural funds than if it were an independent state. On the Common Agricultural Policy, an independent Scottish state's receipts are uncertain and would depend on the terms of accession, which would have to be agreed by all 28 member states."

PRO-UNION: Chief Secretary to the Treasury Danny Alexander, says: "The bottom line is this - Scotland outside of the UK would have to negotiate its own way back into the European Union, and as such its terms of membership would be entirely different to those we currently enjoy."

PRO-INDEPENDENCE: Deputy Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon, says: "Nothing we propose changes the material conditions of any other member state - while they are so certain of complete success in their own ill-advised re-negotiations with the EU over proposals that will fundamentally change the provisions of treaties on which the entire EU, and its single market, rests."

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Kirsteen Shields

Of greater significance is what lies beyond 2020”

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Expert - Kirsteen Shields, University of Dundee, says: "Expense to other member states in increasing CAP receipts to an independent Scotland may in time be offset by reduction in CAP receipts to the UK. Member States would likely be motivated to ensure that it would remain viable for Scotland to remain in the EU.

"The budget ceiling at issue relates to a six-year period only. Of greater significance is what lies beyond 2020. In that respect it is important to consider the budgetary implications for Scotland were it to remain in a UK which is severed from the EU or whether, in the long-term, it may be more advantageous for Scotland to be in the EU than in the UK."

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Fiscal policy
Bank of England building

UK government paper on Macroeconomic and Fiscal Performance: "A separate Scottish state would have to establish its own macroeconomic and institutional framework. Institutional and policy divergence between Scotland and the continuing UK would be likely to lead to a weakening of economic integration. And over the longer-term, some business networks might end as a result of economic, historical and cultural ties being weakened.

PRO-UNION: UK chancellor George Osborne, says:"Let's lay to rest some myths once and for all - independent countries of a similar size do not outperform Scotland."

PRO-INDEPENDENCE: Deputy Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon says: "If you were sitting in Norway listening to George Osborne you would laugh at him, because they are a country of similar size to Scotland that is sitting right now on a £470bn oil fund for the future."

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David Ulph

A separate Scottish state might choose to mimic some of the institutional framework in the rest of the UK (rUK) - e.g., competition framework - or pursue a very different competition policy”

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EXPERT - David Ulph, from the Social Institute for Research in Economics, says: "While it is true that a Scottish state would have to develop its own macroeconomic and institutional framework, what this statement seems to ignore is that Scotland already has a very different institutional framework from rest of UK - different legal system, education system, health system etc.

"A separate Scottish state might choose to mimic some of the institutional framework in the rest of the UK (rUK) - eg, competition framework - or pursue a very different competition policy. There is nothing inevitable about a widening divergence, this is to some extent a matter of policy choice.

"Almost by definition it is certainly true that the creation of a separate Scottish state would bring to an end the devolution of powers from UK to Scotland. But that doesn't mean that all devolution would end. There are interesting questions about devolution of powers within the rest of the UK, and devolution of tax and spending powers within Scotland to local authorities.

"While true that sharing of fiscal risks would be reduced there is nothing inevitable about not being able to coordinate policies and share costs. Note: Airbus provides example of coordination and sharing of costs across national boundaries.

"Finally, for reasons set out above, I don't think there is a lot one can learn from the literature of trade, labour and capital flows. Given the existing institutional divergences, are Scotland and the rest of the UK best thought of as two regions of a single country or as two otherwise similar regions in different countries?

"But one important point is that it is essential to distinguish trade flows from capital and labour flows. It makes a great deal of difference whether some goods or services are produced in rest of UK using capital and labour in rest of UK and then exported into Scotland, or whether there are flows of labour and capital into Scotland to facilitate local production to serve the domestic market. Institutional and other barriers may limit trade flows but encourage flows of labour and capital."

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Scotland Live

    Friday roundup 22:57: Martin Conaghan BBC Scotland

    That's all from us on the Scotland Live team for Day Two of the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow.

    It's been yet another eventful day for Team Scotland, with three more golds, taking the total haul of medals to 15.

    medal composite

    Dan Wallace won in the pool, Sarah Clark took the top prize in the judo and Neil Fachie was triumphant in the para-cycling at the velodrome.

    The weather remained glorious across Glasgow and we had a lively debate about elderly drinking, and discussed famous Scots who are not able to vote in September's Scottish Independence Referendum.

    Tune in from 7am on Saturday as we bring you live updates on news, travel, weather, sport - and just about anything that's happening across Scotland throughout the day.

    Thanks for your company. Goodnight!

    Making a racquet 22:47:

    Good news for Scotland in badminton as they whitewashed New Zealand 5-0 in the mixed team event.

    Each match was won two games to love, with women's doubles partners Imogen Bankier and Kirsty Gilmour winning the final match in just 22 minutes.

    The comprehensive victory puts Scotland through to the quarter-finals of the competition.

    Scotland's medals so far 22:32:

    SCOTLAND has 15 medals after two days of Commonwealth Games competition. That is seven gold, three silver and five bronze:

    • Gold - Kimberley Renicks, judo, women's -48kg.
    • Gold - Hannah Miley, swimming, women's 400m individual medley.
    • Gold - Louise Renicks, judo, women's -52kg.
    • Gold - Ross Murdoch, swimming, men's 200m breaststroke.
    • Gold - Neil Fachie and Craig MacLean, track cycling, men's 1,000m time trial B2 tandem.
    • Gold - Sarah Clark, judo, women's -63kg.
    • Gold - Daniel Wallace, swimming, men's 400m individual medley.
    • Silver - Aileen McGlynn and Louise Haston, track cycling, women's sprint B2 tandem.
    • Silver - Stephanie Inglis, judo, women's -57kg.
    • Silver - Michael Jamieson, swimming, men's 200m breaststroke.
    • Bronze - James Millar, judo, men's -66kg
    • Bronze - James Buchanan, judo, men's -60kg.
    • Bronze - Connie Ramsay, judo, women's -57kg.
    • Bronze - Sally Conway, judo, women's -70kg.
    • Bronze - Corrie Scott, swimming, women's 50m breaststroke
    Braveheart explains 22:31: Via Twitter

    Scottish swimmer Dan Wallace tweets: FOR FREEDOM - as in the Braveheart movie...not Scottish independence...can't even in Florida!

    Sunny still 22:24: BBC Scotland Weather Latest

    Saturday will have a dry, bright start with sunny spells. Haar in east burning off. Rain into far west later moving slowly east. Temps 25C in East, 21C in West

    Travel update 22:23: BBC Scotland Travel Latest

    In the Highlands at Glen Sheil the A87 has now re-opened, it was closed for most of the afternoon at the Cluanie Inn following an accident, but traffic may still be slow along this stretch on approach.

    It's also been a very busy evening for traffic in Glasgow with Commonwealth Games events at the SECC, Kelvingrove, Tollcross, Glasgow Green, The Emirates Arena and the Velodrome, and restrictions and road closures around each venue.

    Trains between Dalmarnock, City Centre, SECC and Partick experiencing some delays and cancellations.

    Tomorrow's listening 22:08:

    Tune into Sportsound on Saturday from 1400 on BBC Radio Scotland, on digital or listen online.

    The programme will be packed full of Commonwealth Games action and the latest from the first round of the Petrofac Training Cup.

    Coverage continues 22:07:

    Don't forget, there's still plenty of action from the Commonwealth Games to go before the sun goes completely down.

    You can still watch squash, hockey and badminton on the BBC Red Button or via the live video stream on the BBC Sport Scotland website.

    21:58: Via Twitter

    Scottish cyclist Charline Joiner tweets: "Twitter is now going off! Focusing on tomorrow's Scratch Race. It's at 4.21pm. Can't wait to take to the boards. "

    The 24-year-old Fifer has recovered in time for the Games after fracturing three bones in her spine while racing in Spain in January.

    Rock 'n' roll Danny 21:53:

    The cheers which greeted Danny Wallace's gold medal medal win in the pool were ear-splitting.

    However, Wallace admitted he was close to not making the team.

    daniel wallace

    Earlier this year, Wallace, who is studying at University of Florida, was almost axed from Team Scotland after he was arrested in the US for urinating on a police car and suspended by his American swim team.

    He said: "(Being arrested) was a wake up call. I was living the life of a rock star but still trying to perform in the pool.

    "You can't do both. It is all about moderation and I have learned from my experiences and it has paid off now.

    "I was a student, I was away from my parents, I had a lot of freedom but I have learned to deal with that and channel it the right way."

    Relay close 21:48:

    Scotland's men can only manage fourth in the men's 4x100m relay in the pool at Tollcross.

    Australia win the gold, with South Africa grabbing silver - and England take the bronze medal.

    Braveheart Wallace 21:38:

    What did Edinburgh's Daniel Wallace roar after his Commonwealth Games gold in the 400 metres individual medley?

    It appears the 21-year-old Braveheart yelled 'for freedom!' after touching home to claim Scotland's third pool gold of Glasgow 2014.

    daniel wallace

    He later said: "I just yelled at the top of my lungs 'for freedom' because being here, the home crowd has really brought out the Braveheart and Scot inside of me and I just soaked up the moment."

    He added: "I watched Braveheart just last week to get ready for this. It is such a Scottish thing and it warms my heart."

    All aboard 21:24: Laura Pettigrew BBC Commonwealth Games reporter

    Glasgow 2014: Flotilla sails its way into the Games


    Organisers joked that the Commonwealth Flotilla up the Clyde is the quickest and most hassle free way to get to the Games - and boat owners also benefit from having their own ready-made, cheap accommodation.

    Ahead of the spectacle the small ships, clippers, cruisers, yachts and working boats taking part mustered in Greenock.

    Travel problems 21:22: Via Twitter

    Games Travel 2014 tweets: Rail services between Dalmarnock,City Centre,SECC & Partick experiencing some delays & cancellations. Rectifing as quick as poss,bear with us

    Back to earth 21:18:

    Edinburgh's Craig McNally manages a respectable seventh place in the men's 100m backstroke final with a time of 54.54s.

    England's Chris Walker-Hebborn takes gold with a time of 53.12s ahead of Australia's Mitch Larkin who captured silver, while Liam Tancock, also of England, takes bronze.

    21:11: Via Twitter

    BBC Scotland presenter Rhona McLeod adds a personal touch to her congratulation to gold medallist Sarah Clark: "Delighted for @sarahclark_judo gold medal! Saw her 12 years ago winning silver @ Manchester Games. Dedication & professionalism personified."

    Other Games news 21:07:

    In the table tennis, Scotland's men have reached the quarter-final after a win against Sri Lanka.

    Meanwhile, in the bowls, Paul Foster and Alex Marshall won 16-15 against South Africa in the Men's Pairs Sectional Play.

    He's on his way 21:05: The Herald
    Wallace monumental 21:00: Kheredine Idessane BBC Scotland

    Gold in the pool for Team_Scotland's Dan Wallace in the 400m Individual Medley. Those in the know won't be surprised: he was a stand-out at world champs last year

    Football update 20:58:

    The Commonwealth Games are not the only sporting action taking place in Scotland tonight.

    Queen's Park and Berwick Rangers are locked at 1-1 after the first half of their Scottish Challenge Cup first round match.

    Darren Lavery gave Berwick the lead in three minutes but Ross McPherson squared it after 33 minutes.

    Swimming atmosphere 20:53: Aimee Lewis BBC Sport

    "What. A. Roar. The Scottish crowd enjoyed that and so did Daniel Wallace. The powerful Scot made his competitors look like tug boats. He sits on the ropes and encourages the supporters to roar some more, which is fine and dandy but I will need a ear test after this evening."

    daniel wallce
    Medal Haul 20:49:

    Scotland's medal tally is now up to 14, with half of the haul gold in colour.

    Medal tally
    Drying off 20:47:

    If swimming's not your thing, you can still see Scots in live action as Scotland's badminton team is currently taking on New Zealand. Watch the action here.

    Scottish badminton player Kirsty Gilmour
    Medley Magic 20:42:

    Scotland's Dan Wallace powering his way to a 4m 11.20s win in the 400m individual medley at Tollcross pool in the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games.

    Dan Wallace
    Golden Dan 20:38:

    Scotland's Dan Wallace takes gold in the 400m individual medley at the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow.

    That takes the total three gold medals in the pool alone for Scotland to match the three picked up in the judo.

    Clark's quotes 20:37:

    Gold medal-winning judoka Sarah Clark speaks about her success in the under 63kg category at the Hydro: "It feels a bit surreal to be honest. It's been a long time coming but now it's here I'm so happy.

    Scottish judoka Sarah Clark

    "Self motivation gets you doing this sport at home and on the mat but the crowd here brings additional motivation. It adds a bit of pressure but it's how you deal with that when it counts that matters.

    "The last 10 months have been building up to this. As I started getting better and fitter again I knew I wanted this."

    20:30: Via Twitter

    Ross Murdoch tweets: Through to the 100m final with a time of 59.72. Bring on the final tomorrow at 20:50! [TeamRM]

    20:29: Via Twitter

    ‏Scotland's cycling hero @chrishoy: Me and two of my heroes. @GraemeObree and the Big Yin!

    Chris Hoy with Graeme Obree and Billy Connolly
    Ross rules 20:26:

    Scotland's Ross Murdoch tells BBC Sport after winning his 100m breaststroke semi-final: "I feel fresh and good. Recovery wasn't great after the back of the 200m because we got back late. I haven't seen anything from yesterday's win really, I'm just trying to stay grounded."

    ross murdoch
    Hope sunk 20:21:

    Scotland's Michael Jamieson has failed to qualify for the final of the men's 100m breaststroke at the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games.

    Six swimmers finished faster than him in the second semi-final, after he finished in fifth place in the first semi.

    Pool shark 20:15:

    Scots gold medal hero Ross Murdoch powers to a semi-final win in the men's 100m breaststroke.

    His time of time of 59.72s puts him into tomorrow's final after he finished ahead of his team-mate Craig Benson who came third.

    Michael Jamieson seems to have lost his mojo - he finished in fifth place and could struggle to qualify depending on the result of the second semi-final, which is coming right up...

    Hockey highlights 20:14:

    Ailsa Wyllie scores twice as Scotland beat Malaysia 2-0 in their hockey pool match.

    Watch the highlights here.

    Scotland's women celebrate after 2-0 win over Malaysia
    Judo clip 20:10:

    Sarah Clark of Scotland wins the under 63kg judo final as she makes opponent Helene Wezeu Dombeu of Cameroon submit. Watch the clip here

    sarah clark
    Still game? 20:05:

    Scotland's best-loved comedy duo Ford Kiernan and Greg Hemphill are at BBC At the Quay right now, talking to Kaye Adams about their rise to fame and career highlights ahead of their sold-out Still Game live shows this autumn.

    ford and greg
    20:01: Via Twitter James Cook Scotland Correspondent, BBC News

    tweets: Fed up with lounging in the sun? Then why not come inside and watch our #indyref Review of the Week on @BBCNews at 8.30pm?

    No headgear 19:55: Via Email

    Jenny Connar asks via email: "Why are competitors not wearing head gear?"

    Michael Conlan of Northern Ireland, left, fights Matthew Martin from Nauru

    In a decision last year, the International Boxing Association stopped the use of headgear in male bouts, citing medical experts who said it would help reduce concussions.

    While female fighters and younger boxers will still use headgear, the boxing association cited medical studies that wearing headgear diffused blows to the head and allowed boxers to sustain more head shots - and potential brain damage - for longer periods of time.

    In the first bout of the boxing competition at the Commonwealth Games, Mathew Martin of Nauru had a large lump on his head from a punch.

    Northern Ireland's Michael Conlan, who won unanimously on points, had blood streaming down his face.

    That gold is mine 19:42: Keir Murray BBC Sport Scotland

    "I'm a strong wee guy. That gold is mine," proclaims Reece McFadden after stylish win at flyweight over Selby at SECC. He is electric! - and he is in the last 16.

    reece mcfadden
    Nothing for Robbie 19:37:

    Scottish swimmer Robbie Renwick, who won gold in Delhi four years ago, comes fifth in the Men's 200m Freestyle final.

    Boxing 19:28: Neil Johnston BBC Sport

    Scotland's Reece McFadden has beaten world number one Andrew Selby, from Wales in the flyweight boxing.

    reece madfaddeen and anderw selby

    "Reece McFadden (left) walked out to The Proclaimers track "I Will Walk 500 Miles" and he's walking off to a standing ovation at the SECC centre after defeating Wales flyweight opponent Andrew Selby much to the delight of the partisan crowd.

    "At 19, McFadden is six years younger than Selby but he produces a mature performance to go through by an unanimous points decision.

    "This lad is popular. The place is packed and the whole arena are out of their seats, some waving Scottish flags, while McFadden, dressed all in red, laps up the attention and bows to the crowd."

    Swimming success 19:21:

    Women's 50m breaststroke bronze medallist Corrie Scott tells BBC One: "I just can't believe it. I said at the start that the crowd could make the difference between fourth and a bronze and it did there."

    scott finsih
    Great Scott 19:16:

    Corrie Scott swims to Bronze in the Women's 50m breaststroke at Tollcross.

    corrie scott
    Judo medal 19:12:

    Bronze for Sally Conway. She wins her medal in the -70kg judo for Team Scotland.

    Scottish judoka Sally Conway

    She won her victory over Sunibala Huidrom of India by penalty. It is not the medal Conway wanted but she gratefully laps up the appreciation of the home crowd.

    19:05: Via Twitter Keir Murray BBC Sport Scotland

    tweets: If Andrew Selby looks up a Scots dictionary for a definition of "gallus" he'll see the name Reece McFadden.

    Motherwell's McFadden has defeated Wales' Andrew Selby on a unanimous points decision.

    Sport roundup 18:53:

    Closing Reporting Scotland on BBC ONE Scotland in a few minutes will be a montage of the first two days of Glasgow 2014.

    Don't miss it!

    More sport 18:53:

    Stay with us right through the evening here on Scotland Live as all the action continues at the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow.

    At 7pm tonight, there's eight medals up for grabs in the pool at Tollcross, and there's more boxing to come too from the Hydro.

    18:50: Via Twitter Keir Murray BBC Sport Scotland

    tweets: In the boxing ring Motherwell's Reece McFadden is on now against Andrew Selby of Wales. What a welcome for the wee man!

    Netball win 18:35:

    Victory for Scotland's netball team as they defeat St Lucia 58-30 in the host nation's first match.

    St Lucia had already lost to Jamaica in their opening match.

    18:31: Via Twitter Keir Murray BBC Sport Scotland

    tweets: Gold medal winner Sarah Clark speaks to BBC Radio Scotland.

    Sarah Clark
    Gold dreams 18:28:

    Here's how the top of the 2014 Commonwealth Games medal table is looking so far, with Scotland just behind Australia and England on gold medals won.

    medal tally
    Judo gold 18:22:

    Scotland's Sarah Clark has won Commonwealth gold for Scotland in the women's under-63kg judo final at the SECC in Glasgow.

    Scottish judoka Sarah Clark
    Double trouble 18:22:

    Video action of Neil Fachie and pilot Craig Maclean winning gold for Scotland in the men's para-cycling 1,000m time trial B2 tandem.

    Neil Fachie and Craig MacLean

    Watch the video here.

    Listen live 18:21:

    For more Commonwealth Games action tune in to Sportsound, live now on BBC Radio Scotland or listen online.

    The programme will have live updates from swimming, cycling, boxing, netball, hockey, shooting and more!

    Bowled over 18:13:

    Scotland lose 15-7 to Jersey in the lawn bowls at Kelvingrove. The Scots remain top of their section, and face Australia on Saturday morning.

    Lawn bowls
    Via Twitter Phil Goodlad BBC Scotland

    tweets: Empty but not for long. First boxers enter ring at 1830 with Scottish Flyweight Reece McFadden 2nd up #Glasgow2014

    Boxing ring
    18:05: Via Twitter

    Scottish cycling champion @NeilFachie tweets: Doping control gold medal selfie! Ah the glamour!

    Cycling gold medal winner Neil Fachie
    17:59: Via Twitter

    Scotland rugby sevens cap Roddy Grant tweets: Cannot wait to don the thistle tomoro! What an honour and responsibility. Home crowd & loud full Ibrox will be incredible!

    Lawn bowled over 17:49:

    Scotland's Women's fours are up against it as they trail Jersey 14-6 after 13 ends.

    Bowls at Kelvingrove Park

    You can watch every nail-biting second here.

    Weather stays great - for now 17:48:

    A fine evening to come with any showers dying away. A dry night will follow with clear spells. Mist and low cloud will continue to feed into eastern coastal areas, spreading inland in some parts too. Overnight lows of 13C.

    On Saturday, a dry start across Scotland and bright with spells of sunshine away from the east coast. Here there will again be extensive haar, this will burn off during the morning.

    Then a change will start to take place. Cloud will increase across the Western Isles with outbreaks of rain starting to push in from the west. It will continue to move inland during the afternoon although eastern Scotland not seeing the rain until evening. Still on the warm side, highs of 25C in the east, around 22C in the west.

    Travel update 17:45: BBC Scotland Travel Latest

    In the Highlands, the A87 is blocked between the Cluanie Inn and Bun Loyne due to an accident - this is the road which runs alongside Loch Cluanie and is the route to and from Loch Alsh.

    On the Forth Road Bridge, there are long northbound delays this evening, with half-hour queues on the M9 and 15 min delays on the A90 approach, which is due to a broken down car at the bridge exit.

    17:37: Via Twitter

    A tweet request from our colleagues ‏@BBCSport: Hazel Irvine wants to hear your favourite Glaswegian words on her @BBCOne show using #weegieword

    Ginkin', boggin', mingin', gantin', honkin' - all useful Glaswegian words for something smelly.

    Netball latest 17:36:

    Scotland's netball side are currently 24-14 up on St Lucia at the Hydro with the second quarter coming to a close.

    Scottish netball player

    Keep up with the latest action here

    Gold medal alert 17:32:

    Cycling: Neil Fachie and his pilot Craig MacLean make it five gold medals for Team Scotland.

    Partially-sighted Fachie (left in photo) and partner MacLean were the last of five teams to go in the 1,000 metres time trial B2 tandem.

    fachie and maclean

    The reaction from the Glaswegian crowd raised the roof of a venue that has become renowned for its ear-splitting crowds.

    After the win, Fachie said: "That was the first time I have raced for Scotland so to get on top of the podium in front of a home crowd, it was hard not get teary-eyed up there. It's a special day. We have done a lot of hard training so the fact that it all came together was great."

    Scots Hockey Win 17:31: Via Twitter

    Tweet from @ScottishHockey: FT Scotland 2-0 Malaysia. Confident performance from our Scottish women with 22 shots on goal! #GoScotland

    R&A Women vote 17:25:

    The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews will host a postal ballot among members on a motion to admit women to its ranks.

    Carly Booth

    The result will be announced on 18 September 2014.

    No Bronze 1720:

    There is to be no Scottish medal in the cycling 3,000m individual pursuit as Amy Cure seals the bronze medal, winning her last race against Scotland's Katie Archibald.

    katie archibald
    NET ACTION 17:15:

    Scotland are also in netball action where they're currently drawing 6-6 with St Lucia.

    Scottish netball player

    Watch all the action here

    17:10: Chris McLaughlin Commonwealth Games reporter, BBC Sport

    tweets: Rhythmic gymnastics at the Hydro. @TeamWales looking good for medals. #Glasgow2014

    HOCKEY DOKEY 17:09:

    Ailsa Wyllie has scored her and Scotland's second goal as Scotland go 2-0 up against Malaysia.

    Scottish hockey player Ailsa Wyllie

    Watch it live here.

    QUEUE SKIPPER 16:54:

    Hannah Miley's father has revealed that he almost missed his daughter's gold medal-winning swim at the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games.

    Hannah Miley

    Miley defended her 400m individual medley title on Thursday night, finishing in four minutes 31.76 seconds to break her own Games record.

    Find out how Hannah's dad skipped the queue to see the action.


    It's half-time in the hockey at Glasgow Green and Scotland's Women's side are 1-0 up on Malaysia courtesy of a goal from Ailsa Wyllie.

    Watch it live here.

    Fast Fachie 16:46: Victoria Pendleton BBC Sport cycling expert & former CWG champion

    "Neil Fachie and Craig MacLean have worked together a long time and I don't think that was ever in doubt! To make up so much time shows their class."

    connolly and mccconnell

    The gold medal for the Scots cyclist meets with the approval of Billy Connolly and Jack McConnell

    16:39: Via Twitter

    BBC Scotland bowls commentator Peter Wright tweets: "Scotland's women's 4 playing at Kelvingrove and it is so hot!! What I wouldn't give for some clouds."

    WHEELS OF GOLD 16:34:

    Scotland's Neil Fachie takes gold at the Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome in the 1000m Tandem B2 time trial para-cycling event, with his pilot Craig MacLean.

    16:21: Keir Murray BBC Sport Scotland

    tweets: Third and last Scottish boxer today is Motherwell's Reece McFadden from Forgewood club. Seven-time Scottish champ boxes Selby of Wales at 18:35

    16:20: Via Twitter

    Scotland high jumper Emma Nuttall: "Nails done and ready for Wednesday!" The high jump qualifying rounds get underway at 10:45 at Hampden Park.

    Scottish athlete Emma Nuttall's painted nails
    BILLY AND JACK 16:14:

    Former Scotland First Minister Jack McConnell enjoys a blether with the Big Yin, Billy Connolly, at the Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome as the evening's cycling events get under way.

    Billy Connolly and Jack McConnell
    Crowd love it

    Scotland's Lauren Brash, who is just 15 years old, competes in the rhythmic gymnastics, performing to an updated version of "Donald, where's your troosers?"

    lauren brash
    Unanimous decision Phil Goodlad BBC Scotland

    Super Heavyweight Ross Henderson is through to the last 16 of the Commonwealth Games Boxing.

    The 27-year-old from Motherwell beat Parveen Kumar in a unanimous decision after three rounds.


    Henderson, who is fighting in his second Commonwealth Games, was the busier fighter throughout and, despite being caught by Kumar's solid jab, deserves his place in the quarter finals of the +91kg division.

    Cable line-up 15:56:

    What has been described as the biggest fibre cable-laying project of its kind in the UK in years has started off the west coast of Scotland.

    cable laying

    The project forms part of the £410m Digital Scotland Superfast Broadband initiative.

    A specialist vessel, the Rene Descartes, will be involved in laying some of the 249 miles (400km) of cable.

    Murdoch tops poll 15:44:

    BBC Sport did a wee poll earlier today asking for the best sporting moment of the Commonwealth Games so far.

    It seems Ross Murdoch's heroics in the pool have earned him another accolade.

    The gold-winning Scot's tremendous triumph in the 200m breaststroke took 36.7% of the vote, with Alistair Brownlee's triathlon gold taking second on 25.5% and Hannah Miley's gold and record-breaking swim earning her third place, with 11.4%.

    Ross swims again later in the 100m breaststroke semi-finals. Just after 20:00.

    ross murdoch
    Seconds out 15:21:

    In about 10 minutes, Scotland's Ross Henderson enters the ring in the Men's Super Heavyweight category in the boxing.

    The Blacksmith from Motherwell will be fighting India's Parveen Kumar Parveen in the last 16 bout.

    15:15: Via Twitter Phil Goodlad BBC Scotland

    tweets from the boxing at the Commonwealth Games: Scotland's Lewis Bensom loses in 69kg category to New Zealander Bowyn Morgan. Huge left in second round doing the damage #Glasgow2014

    Travel update 15:14: BBC Scotland Travel Latest

    On the M9 Northbound, an accident between junction four at Lathallan and junction five at Cadgers Brae is blocking one lane northbound and southbound heading towards Stirling.

    There's Commonwealth Games events today in Carnoustie. Shooting at Barry Buddon finishes in around two hours time, so roads around the venue will be busy this evening.

    In Glasgow it's a busy day with events at the SECC, Kelvingrove, Tollcross and Glasgow Green.

    The Emirates Arena and the Velodrome have restrictions and road closures around each venue.

    Scotrail trains from Helensburgh Central to Edinburgh are not calling at Scotstounhill or Jordanhill today. You can get the low-level service from Glasgow Central if you're heading to events at Scotstoun.

    If you're travelling west from Glasgow you need to use Central Low Level, while eastbound travellers should use Argyle Street Station.

    From today, there will be no parking along the Commonwealth Games Marathon route.

    Don't forget, the Wickerman Festival is on this weekend at Kirkudbright in East Kirkcarswell so expect heavy traffic on all routes, especially the A75.

    Rhythm is gonna get ya 15:10:

    Team Scotland's Lauren Brash is in the rhythmic gymnastics all-round final. Watch it here

    lauren brash
    Squashed hopes 15:02:

    Not a happy 28th birthday for Scotland's Alan Clyne. He has lost out in the last 16 of the Men's squash. England's number one Nick Matthew beat Clyne 3-0.

    Hotel sold 14:56:

    One of Edinburgh's most prestigious hotels, The Roxburghe, has been sold to a US-based investment management firm.

    The four-star hotel in Edinburgh's Charlotte Square was bought by Starwood Capital for an undisclosed sum.

    roxburghe hotel
    In the velodrome 14:47:

    Glasgow 2014: In cycling, Scotland's Katie Archibald has set a new Scottish record in the 3000m pursuit. She qualified in fourth place.

    And Mark Stewart also set a new Scottish record in his heat in the 4000m qualifying. Unfortunately he did not get through his heat.

    mark stewart
    Panda twins 14:30:

    A red panda at the Highland Wildlife Park at Kincraig, near Aviemore, has given birth to twins.

    Kitty's young were born on 15 June, but have only been revealed following the release of images from the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland.

    panda cubs at Highland Wildlife Park
    A quaich guide 14:08:

    As well as a gold, silver or bronze gong, each Glasgow 2014 medallist is being presented with a special commemorative quaich.

    The presentation quaichs

    The wooden bowls - designed by Glasgow-based Paul Hodgkiss - have sparked interest from TV viewers around the world.

    So, what is a quaich and what are they meant to symbolise about the Games? Find out here.

    Merchant sizzle 13:58: Laura Bicker Scotland Correspondent, BBC News

    tweets: Merchant city in Glasgow is sizzling for the Games #glasgow2014

    Merchant City Glasgow
    Commonwealth Flotilla 13:53:

    About 250 boats are beginning to gather in Greenock ahead of the Commonwealth Flotilla up the Clyde to Glasgow.

    Small ships, clippers, yachts and working boats will muster at James Watt Dock.

    Flotilla gathers in Greenock

    On Saturday they will sail 17 nautical miles to Pacific Quay, with hundreds of spectators expected to watch.

    Games lift for bike scheme 13:42:

    Glasgow's recently launched cycle-hire scheme has seen a substantial increase in uptake since the Games started.

    Glasgow bike-hire scheme

    The £600,000 initiative runs at 37 sites - six of which are temporary Games sites.

    The previous high of 421 hires on 1 July has been surpassed by rentals on Wednesday and Thursday this week of 502 and 611 respectively.

    Figures show the lowest number of rentals, 107, was on the scheme's launch day of 24 June.

    Afternoon weather 13:16: BBC Scotland Weather Latest

    Another warm day for many of us with plenty of sunshine around.

    Reaching the high 20sC at best again - this most likely around the north west. These high temperatures could spark off the odd sharp isolated shower. Always slightly fresher along the east coat.

    For a full forecast, go to the BBC Weather site.

    The cost of competing 12:56:

    Scotland's Commonwealth gold-winning sisters Kimberley and Louise Renicks have been speaking to BBC Scotland's Jane Lewis about their big wins yesterday and also funding in judo.

    Kimberley and Louise Renicks

    The duo revealed they have spent around £25,000 competing in their chosen sport.

    'No question' over Arrow smoke 12:48:

    There was "no question" the Red Arrows would change the colour of smoke trails to represent the Scottish flag at the Glasgow 2014 opening ceremony, UK Defence Secretary Michael Fallon says.

    Read arrows

    It follows reports the RAF aerobatic team was forced to change its smoke from blue and white to its usual red, white and blue at the last minute.

    Read the full story here.

    Scots record breaker 12:39:

    Katie Archibald broke Scottish record in qualifying for women's 3000m individual pursuit and will take on Australian Amy Cure for the bronze medal at about 16:55.

    Katie Archibald
    Games boost? 12:29:

    Irn Bru maker AG Barr has said it is on track to outperform Britain's overall soft drinks market, with a 5.6% rise in first-half revenue.

    Irn-Bru cans

    The Cumbernauld-based firm, which is one of the sponsors of the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games, is expecting sales of £135m in the six months to the end of July.

    Swimming success 12:18:

    Team Scotland swimmers are continuing to do well in the pool.

    Dan Wallace set a new British and Commonwealth record in the heats of the 400m medley, while Robbie Renwick, below, the Commonwealth 200m freestyle champion, qualified for the event's final.

    Robbie Renwick

    You can watch all the latest action in the pool live on the BBC Sport website.

    Wales hurdler out following dope test 12:09:

    Team Wales 400m hurdler Rhys Williams is out of the Games after being charged with an anti-doping violation.

    Rhys Williams

    The 30-year-old former European champion says he is "utterly devastated" and denies knowingly taking any banned substance.

    Pictures of the week 11:55:

    Check out a selection of your photographs of Scotland taken between 18 and 25 July.

    Picture of Glasgow 2014 opening ceremony


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