Wealth gets wealthier

Grangemouth China has already invested in some Scottish businesses including Grangemouth oil refinery

Up to five trillion pounds - five thousand thousand million, with 12 zeros - is now swilling around the world on the books of sovereign wealth funds. It's an unimaginably large sum, but it could easily get very much bigger.

That's according to research at Edinburgh University business school, set out at a seminar on the impact of these vast government-controlled assets.

Gavin Kretzschmar, an expert in the sector, has looked at those governments that run their own oil and gas corporations, which is the sector behind most sovereign wealth.

That only includes those that are open about their accounts, which is far from all of them.

Comparing those national oil corporations with international oil corporations, the academic and former investment banker found the government-controlled sector is far less efficient in the revenue it extracts per barrel.

Governments are also far less efficient in leveraging value from the oil and gas assets they hold, and they are the ones sitting on around three-quarters of the world's reserves.

So it's reckoned that bringing national oil corporations up to the efficiency level of international oil corporations, and adding in the possibility of oil prices heading towards $150 per barrel, and Kretzschmar says you could see the value of these wealth funds increasing as much as ten-fold.

The headiness of this upward surge is explained by the disproportionate link between the oil price and the value to owners of reserves. Because the margins made on oil production matter more than the actual cost of it, a three-fold increase in oil prices, up from $50 where it was quite recently, can see its valuation rise by a factor of eight.

Economic supercycle

That's just one of the mind-boggling figures to come out of a "dialogue" I attended yesterday at Edinburgh University business school on the implications of sovereign wealth funds for the world economy.

What it underlined was the radical shift in wealth and economic power. This was described by one participant as a "supercycle", as significant as the post-war boom or the late 19th century industrial revolution and rise of the USA.

That analysis suggests we're already ten years into the cycle, with 20 years or so for it to run, as the emerging economies rise to the same economic and financial status as developed nations.

The themes were of oil-rich nations, and those building up huge trade surpluses - notably, of course, China - reversing the established flow of investment out of Europe.

As John Swinney, Scotland's finance secretary, showed with his pitch, there is an explicit appeal to those who control this rapid growth in wealth to look to Scotland as a good place to invest in infrastructure.

We're already seeing the impact of inward investment in existing assets, with a Chinese state-owned enterprises buying a half share of Grangemouth oil refinery and the Korean National Oil Corporation buying Dana Petroleum.

The trend was characterised by one senior bank economist saying the past 20 or so years have been defined by the words "made in China", the next 20 and more will be defined by "bought by China".

Luxury goods

The new areas of wealth are underpinning growth in new trade routes - what used to be known as south-south trade. (In my younger day studying economics, that was a euphemism for inferior quality goods, as poorer nations made substitutes for superior European and North American goods and services.)

That's most obvious in China's purchase of assets in Africa, to fuel its economy with minerals and food. But the links are much more extensive and complex than that, and one of the seminar contributors highlighted the extent to which long-neglected Africa in particular has become hot property.

There are, of course, opportunities for business close to home in this rise of the new wealthy and the middle class across Asia and South America. They're buying UK luxury goods, from Range Rovers to single malt whisky, with Mulberry handbags being the latest to report on the Asian boost to business.

That also explains the success of those Scottish companies selling capital goods into the infrastructure boom around the world, including Weir Group, Clyde Union and Aggreko.

But there are really big questions about what place the Scottish, UK and European economies will take in this new world order.

Relatively poorer, for sure. We can already see that as UK wages are far outstripped by inflation, making the economy more competitive?

But how to sustain competitiveness? It's argued that the future will be shaped by cash, commodities and creativity. Of those, creativity is where the UK excels.

So how to make that thrive? Are creative industries and universities getting the support they'll need to address that challenge?

Douglas Fraser Article written by Douglas Fraser Douglas Fraser Business and economy editor, Scotland

Shared tax powers: a tricky balancing act

A study of the way central and regional governments share powers over tax was intended to inform the eurozone debate. It's highly relevant to Scotland and the UK too, as David Cameron sets out the draft clauses for more powers at Holyrood.

Read full article


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  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    What are the implications of the increasing wealth of 1300 million Chinese for small States?
    For a start, and taking up the theme of both Marx & Adam Smith, it's the underlying economic forces that determine our futures.
    Not the irrelevant self-publicists in various parliaments.
    Scotland depends more than our neighbours on foreign trade and is exceptionally affected by those economic forces.

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    17th June 2011 - 12:10

    "reminds me of cold war Russia"

    Or the north korean state of pacific quay!

    No dissent, no discussion - you must obey the propaganda!

    Do they think we are all stupid? Obviously they do. Have you noticed all the "new" voices on BwB who have obviously been sent in to counter the independence supporters?

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    last nights aberdeen QT was one to satisfy any scot\ moore was poor and couldn't give a satisfactory answers over the oil tax and job losses\ AS was composed over the timing of the referendum\ as dimbleby taunted forsythe and moore to call it before him\ AS was at ease with what seemed a mildly hostile audience.but by the end they seemed more subdued!

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    the expert says those governments who run their own gas and oil corporations are the source of most sovereign wealth\ take note AS for after independence

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    i find it rather intriguing reminds me of cold war Russia\ you are waiting for the K.G.B. to come to the door at any time\ or BBC are the french Resistance allowing you limited access only when it is safe to do so.
    remember careless talk costs lives\ and don't shoot the messengers our brave BBC chaps & and girls who at great risk bring you this service!

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    How things change... for decades we owned industries, created wealth and exploited cheap labour. Now the east is creating wealth, making its own things and buying up continents and major industries in the UK....
    Mr Swinney.. its not really a situation to be proud off. With a global footprint, a business in Scotland is just a dot on the map that can be closed down with the strike of a pen.

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    Surely the closest SWF is in Shetland.... now there was a savvy deal at the time and look what a fabulous infrastructure its bought. What will happen when the money runs out though, who knows. Spending it wisely on long term infrastructure and not showering the residents in freebys and subsidies is the wisest use of these windfalls.

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    I see that Brian's blog is off comments... is it just to blank out
    reaction to QT ? or is it permanent ?.

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    16th June 2011 - 15:55
    Any reason why brian taylor's blog no longer allows comments?

    Good question. I get the feeling that the beeb doesn't want our comments. May have something to do with question time coming from Aberdeen last night?

  • rate this

    Comment number 7.

    Any reason why brian taylor's blog no longer allows comments?


  • rate this

    Comment number 6.

    Ochone, ochone, no us - we're too poor, we're too wee, we're too stupid...aye right, change the record. Then again, don't because if you haven't worked out by now the extent to which such relentless negativity loses friends (i.e. voters) and alienates people you never will...which suits us Independistas just fine a' chairdean...

  • rate this

    Comment number 5.

    Historians will look back at this period in our history and conclude that we wasted what was probably the biggest economic opportunity Scotland and indeed the UK has ever had.

  • rate this

    Comment number 4.

    Which of our near neighbours has their own sovereign wealth fund? That'll be Norway.

    This is Scotland amigo, not Norway

    They'll spend every penny on daft stuff like Trams to Nowhere, Bridges we don't need and Parliamentary Buildings we don't want.

    In 20 years Scotland would be called Folly Land, well maybe not, but the piggy bank would definitely be empty and every penny spent

  • rate this

    Comment number 3.

    Moujick..................you ain't getting it, heck we can't even stop the UK supreme court meddling in Scots Law.......Well we'll certainly naw get whit ye want fae long drawn out debates, referendums.......Naw I'm guessing something akin to the break up of Yugoslavia or a Chechnya is what yer looking for.....

  • rate this

    Comment number 2.

    That's all the money from the Bank-bail-outs

    Somebody had to be on the receiving end of all those derivatives who picked the winning side when the system crashed.

    Meanwhile we get to pay inflated taxes until we're 99 years old because our banks were on the losing side of that global supercasino.

  • rate this

    Comment number 1.

    Which of our near neighbours has their own sovereign wealth fund? That'll be Norway, underpinned by it's North Sea Oil revenues and now worth in the region of 400 Bn Euros? Where Scotland's sovereign wealth fund, given that we have been a North Sea Oil producer since the 1970s? Oh, that's right, not being a sovereign state in our own right means that we don't have one. Vote Independence!



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