6 December 2012
Last updated at 14:16
A new exhibition at the National Library of Scotland commemorates Edinburgh-based map-making firm John Bartholomew & Son. Images copyright of National Library of Scotland (NLS) and Collins Bartholomew.
These advertising posters, with a 1930s aesthetic, feature in Putting Scotland on the map: The world of John Bartholomew & Son, which runs from 7 December until 7 May 2013.
The advertising posters for Bartholomew's were used in the 1930s. The company created maps and atlases from 1820 until 1995.
Cover of the AA Touring Map of England and Wales 1927. The hand-drawn cover seems to have been rejected by the Automobile Association, as a printed version has yet to be discovered.
An advertising poster for Bartholomew's from the 1930s. Many posters are unusual in the prominence given to women and in the use of photography.
This comedy map of Scotland was created for Edinburgh-based hotelier Andrew Philip in 1882.
Workers varnish wall maps to give them a protective coating.
Many of Bartholomew's maps were engraved on to copper plates and then printed. Letters and shapes were engraved backwards to allow the image to appear the right way round.
Colourists were employed from the 1860s. Throughout Bartholomew's history the department was staffed exclusively by women. The job was to help printers build up the colours of a map in a series of layers.
A litho-writer's hand-made tools. Many engravers also fashioned their own tools to create different effects on the copper plate.
John George Bartholomew led the firm at the height of its success and was awarded the title of official cartographer to the King in 1910. This portrait by Edward Arthur Walton was painted in the same year. Reproduced by permission of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.
This map from 1566 is one of the oldest printed maps of North America. Created by Paolo Forlani, the first edition was published in 1565. This second edition was published by Venetian Bolognino Zaltieri after Forlani sold the plate to him. This is one of the first maps to show the Bering Strait - here called the Strait of Anian. It was an educated guess, as it was not discovered until 1648. The map was bought by the Bartholomew family, who collected antique maps.
The company's purpose-built headquarters on Duncan Street, Edinburgh, functioned for most of the 20th Century. After it closed in 1995, the building was converted into flats.
The cover of a map of Palestine shows how the firm's map-making went far beyond the shores of Scotland.