Why not... legalise drugs?

Syringe and heroin powder

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A look at eye-catching policy ideas that are often talked about but never seem to feature in UK general election campaigns.

The background

Drug prohibition began in the UK during World War I, when the possession, distribution and sale of cocaine and opium was outlawed. Cannabis was added to the list in 1920, in line with international treaties.

For many years, in contrast to the US, the emphasis was on treatment rather than punishment. Heroin was prescribed to addicts on the NHS. But the climate changed in the 1960s, with the explosion in drug use among young people.

The 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act, which categorises drugs by their perceived harm, remains the key piece of legislation.

In 2002, the then Home Secretary, David Blunkett, downgraded cannabis to Class C, only for it to be reclassified as Class B by then Prime Minister Gordon Brown five years later.

As a young Tory MP, David Cameron backed more lenient penalties for the possession of cannabis and ecstasy - and allowing heroin to be prescribed to addicts in "shooting galleries". He was a member of the Home Affairs Select Committee when it called for an international debate on the legalisation of drugs.

Since entering Number 10, he has changed his view and now supports the current laws, in common with his Labour counterpart. Lib Dem leader Nick Clegg said last year that the "war on drugs" was lost and a review of all options was needed.

Danny Kushlick: The case for legalisation

In 1961 the world embarked on a US-led act of collective folly when it identified the non-medical use of specific drugs, including cannabis, cocaine and heroin, as a global threat and attempted to rid the world of them using punitive enforcement.

Danny Kushlick

Danny Kushlick
  • Founded Transform Drug Policy Foundation in 1997
  • Transform is a charitable think tank that campaigns for drug prohibition to be replaced by "effective, just and humane government control and regulation"
  • Previously worked for Bristol Drugs Project, the Big Issue Foundation, Bath Area Drugs Advisory Service and the National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (Nacro)

After 50 years of global prohibition, drugs are cheaper, more available and widely used than ever before; a $300bn (£190bn) a year - and still growing - trade has been gifted to organised criminals and unregulated dealers - creating vast costs for those least able to bear them - undermining public health and human rights, fuelling crime, corruption and conflict, and destabilising entire regions.

So, why has this war not been ended? Why do politicians continue to support it? The fundamental answer is disturbing. Prohibition clearly does not work for the vast majority of the world's citizens. However, it meets the needs of the world's superpowers, who can resource and engage their military, police and criminal justice systems, all justified in the war against the global "drug menace".

And at the same time it meets the needs of global financial markets who launder the billions in illicit profits. As an example HSBC was recently fined $1.9bn for, among other things, laundering $881m of drug cartel money.

To reorient policy in favour of ordinary people, the simple solution is to explore responsible legal regulation of drugs markets. It is a position increasingly supported by Latin American presidents and indeed the US, where citizens in Washington State and Colorado recently voted to legally regulate cannabis markets.

And what of the UK, where 67% of the population support a review of all drug policy options? Despite his previous support for reform, since coming to power David Cameron has become a drug warrior, whilst [Labour leader] Ed Miliband appears to have deserted the most disadvantaged and marginalised by avoiding the drugs issue completely. However, party leaders will shift if voters across the political spectrum prioritise it at election time.

If not, senior politicians will remain in thrall to the US, and the UK will maintain its fervent support for a policy that serves the needs of the elite at the expense of the vast majority.

Kevin Sabet: The case against legalisation

It is easy to be dissatisfied with current drugs policies. Kids report they can get drugs relatively easily, and too many of us have suffered the heartbreak of addiction affecting a loved one or ourselves. The market for drugs is violent and deadly.

Kevin Sabet

Kevin Sabet
  • Doctorate from the University of Oxford, in social policy, as a Marshall Scholar
  • Author of Reefer Sanity: Seven Great Myths About Marijuana
  • Former adviser on drugs policy in the Clinton, Bush and Obama Administrations
  • Co-Founder, with Patrick J Kennedy, of Project Sam (Smart Approaches to Marijuana), a "third way" drug policy organisation

But being unhappy with the drug abuse in society is no reason to legalise drugs. In fact, the best evidence we have shows that legalisation would make a bad drug problem much worse - by increasing addiction, normalising use among kids, and relegating its sale to profit-hungry corporations or governments with every incentive to increase addiction to advance their bottom line. Legalisation is a very sloppy way to address the unintended consequences of current policy.

First, we know that legalisation would significantly cheapen the price of cocaine, cannabis, and heroin, making them more accessible and therefore increasing addiction. Additionally, allowing drugs to be sold on the open market implies we would allow the sale of highly dangerous drugs such as crack and methamphetamine by multinational conglomerates.

Big Tobacco would have nothing on Big Meth.

Second, it is unclear that a major attraction of legalisation - the supposed reduction of the violent, underground market - would materialise. As governments put restrictions like age limits on legal drugs, the illicit economy will be happy to step in to fill the gap. We know now that at least 22% of the UK domestic tobacco market consists of black market illegal cigarettes.

Yes, mass incarceration is a bad thing. And the developing world is being torn apart by the UK's appetite for drugs. But rather than legalise - which would increase crime and potentially increase incarceration rates - we should invest more in strategies such as drug treatment, specialised drug treatment courts, better drug prevention, smart enforcement, and international partnerships that promote alternative development.

The UK is moving in the right direction. By expanding treatment and recovery services over the past decade, drug use has fallen almost 15% between 2005 and 2011. But we still have more work to do.

In the legalisation debate, misleading promises and silver bullets abound. Proceed with caution.


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  • rate this

    Comment number 744.

    Whether you illeagalise drugs or not.. people (not necessarily teenagers) will still be able to get hold of them. It wont stop the drug trade at all.

    If drugs were leagalised wouldnt it be safer for people to be informed on the safety and affects of drugs

  • rate this

    Comment number 743.

    If I was working in A&E on a Satruday night, I would rather be helping someone who has had a couple of joints and an accident than someone who has had 8 pints of lager and got into a fight.

    Distribute through pharmasists and ensure a GP has passed you as being fit to take the drugs in question. We will still have deaths, but probably fewer than through alcohol poisoning.

  • rate this

    Comment number 742.

    277. nutgone

    "Gordon Brown had to re-classify Cannabis after it was found that criminals where breeding lethal strains that can kill after just a few reefers. It is no accident that as drug taking increases in the population so does paedophilia."

    AMAZING!! These are two of the stupidest sentences I've ever read and they are both in one post. Good work!

  • rate this

    Comment number 741.

    Just legalise drugs and educate people on their effects. It's about time we had some accountability. I don't need the government to tell me what's good and bad for my body.

  • rate this

    Comment number 740.

    If legalising cannabis is so beneficial then why is there continual debate in Amsterdam about things such as tourist usage
    If it were legal in the tourists' home country that would solve the problem of cannabis tourism to Amsterdam

  • rate this

    Comment number 739.

    chubbytown " your addiction was your faault, not the drug. "

    Actually it's neither. Addiction is recognised as a medical condition.

    You wouldn't blame somebody that suffers from ms, cancer or parkinson's disease would you?

  • rate this

    Comment number 738.

    Sabets irksome spiel just used pretty spurious sounding statistics to justify his textbook, unimaginative & pro USA thought process, and let us all know that its fine to carry on how we are now.. Yeah sure it is mate!
    Its time we learn to deal with problems at the source - Psychological development in childhood. Tougher sentances and scary school vidoes are laughable!

  • rate this

    Comment number 737.

    Just from a civil liberties perspective:

    Does the government have any right to lock you up as punishment for a decision you make about your own body?

    If you have a hard time sympathising with non-problematic illegal drug users (e.g. occasional MDMA, cannabis, acid), consider this:

    How would you feel if the government decided they could now lock you up for drinking or possessing alcohol?

  • Comment number 736.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.

  • rate this

    Comment number 735.


    If legalising cannabis is so beneficial then why is there continual debate in Amsterdam about things such as tourist usage or even a return to outright ban (too late to put the monster back in the box of course). Also plenty of evidence to show the detrimental effects of cannabis on the brain. Plenty of walking evidence at that.

  • rate this

    Comment number 734.

    I'm against legalising drugs for the following reasons:

    1) they're usually destructive to people and communities.
    2) I don't want my son (who is 4 years old) having easy access to drugs, or for others to be encouraging him to because "the government says its ok", and me being powerless to do anything about it because legally, I'm in the wrong.
    3) I don't want to live in a nation of junkies.

  • rate this

    Comment number 733.

    @709. Fraggle14
    Hope things go well for you and yours to :)

    I'm of the opinion that legalization in some form would serve to solve some problems and help many more problems. This could be the greatest step we never took in the UK. We banned the hard stuff apart from medical use (opium and so on) but we do not treat cannabis the same, we treat it like it is alien and to be feared!

  • rate this

    Comment number 732.

    696.Davey Trasker

    the amout of families " torn apart " from cannabis psychosis is minute compare to amout af families destroyed by alcoholism and tobacco.
    It true that people dont react well to cannabis, so dont smoke it, your addiction was your faault, not the drug. why do people that blame everthing but themselves when it comes to addiction?

  • rate this

    Comment number 731.

    Yeah whatever maaaaaan.

  • rate this

    Comment number 730.

    703.Truth logic sustainability the final frontiers
    3 Minutes ago

    If one excludes & rejects factual/evidential negative realitys in any debate then that debate is baseless.

    so why are you taking down posts that dissagree with your fact free comments?
    i'm happy you reported my(non offensive) post as it must have touched a nerve.. the truth hurts. your debate is a non debate

  • Comment number 729.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.

  • rate this

    Comment number 728.

    Drugs like cannabis and cocaine/xtc should be legalised. Many people use these drugs moderately for recreation. There are minorities who have addiction problems and other health problems due to use, but keeping them illegal does nothing whatsoever to combat this. I can't understand why these drugs are bad but Alcohol is fine. Never seen anyone acting antisocially cos they had had too much to smoke

  • rate this

    Comment number 727.

    @696.Davey Trasker

    Precisely, YOU were addicted to pot. My smoking pot hasn't torn up my family, it hasn't stopped me keeping a job, hasn't caused any health issues
    Why should I be punished for my moderate use because you didn't have the willpower and self-control to do so?
    The anti-legalise groups arguement is"some people to it to excess so criminalise" Drinking too much water can kill you!

  • rate this

    Comment number 726.

    680.Scientist_101 - It's not complicated. The 'war on drugs' is entirely down to profit.
    This is the bit I have trouble with. In Cali where it's legal -

    California Marijuana worth $14 Billion A Year
    $13.7 Billion Saved On Prohibition Enforcement Costs
    Illegal Marijuana A $36B A Year Industry in the USA
    USA Marijuana Prohibition Costs Taxpayers $41.8B A Year

    That's a lot of nurses!

  • rate this

    Comment number 725.

    Smoking weed long-term is not good for you.

    Does that mean you should be sent to jail for several years for using it? And is jailing users good value for the taxpayer and society?

    I think the answer to both is "no".

    I'm not sure that I would give the same answer for heroin. I think the externalities of heroin use argue for its continued illegality.


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