Can UK political parties be saved from extinction?

David Cameron addresses 2006 Tory conference

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Political party membership appears to be in terminal decline in the UK - so can anything be done to reverse the trend? And does it matter?

It was once a source of cultural identity and pride for millions of British people.

But at just over 1% of the population - low by European standards - party membership is fast becoming a minority pursuit.

There are more members of the Caravan Club, or the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, than of all Britain's political parties put together.

There are many theories as to why this has happened.

The public have grown cynical and disillusioned with politicians.

We live in a more individualistic age (Why rely on political leaders to speak for you when you can do it yourself on Twitter or Facebook?).


Politics itself has become too boring and managerial - the ideological red meat loved by the "party faithful" is in short supply.

There have also been profound changes in the way Britons spend their spare time, since the days when the local Labour, Conservative or Liberal club was at the heart of the community.

"Most people don't use politics for socialising in the way they might have done in the fifties and sixties, when you had a realistic chance of meeting your future husband or wife at a party dinner or dance.


  • 1951 Conservative 2.9m - Labour 876,000
  • 1971 Conservative 1.3m - Labour 700,000
  • 1981 Conservative 1.2m - Labour 277,000
  • 1991 Conservative 1m to 0.5m - Labour 261,000 - Lib Dem 91,000
  • 2001 Conservative 311,000 - Labour 272,000 - Lib Dem 73,000
  • 2011 Conservative 177,000 - Labour 190,000 - Lib Dem - 66,000 (Source: Estimates based on party reports and House of Commons Library)

"There may be the odd exception, but that really isn't the case any more," says Jonathan Isaby, former co-editor of Conservative Home, a popular website for Tory supporters.

Even those drawn to political activism can find party politics a bit strange and off-putting, preferring instead to join one of the many single issue campaigns that now exist.

"I sometimes drag my wife along to political events but she hates going because she thinks they are all a load of oddballs," said one prominent single issue campaigner, who did not want to be named.

"Politics is conducted in a very specific way in the UK that doesn't really chime with the rest of the country."

Community action

It is not all gloom - there are still many thriving local party associations around the country.

And new parties, such as the Greens, UKIP, the SNP and Plaid Cymru, have sprung up over the years to cater to the increasingly diverse political tastes of the British public.

Tony Blair, Trimdon Labour Club Trimdon Labour Club - Tony Blair's spiritual home - closed last year

But - with the exception of the SNP in Scotland - the big three Westminster parties still dominate in terms of membership and influence.

And unless they can find a way of breathing new life into their moribund structures, British democracy could soon find itself on the critical list.

Labour leader Ed Miliband has made rebuilding his party a top priority.

The membership will vote next month on a series of proposals - from discount membership fees to making local parties more "welcoming" - aimed at Refounding Labour.

Mr Miliband wants to transform the party into a modern, outward-looking organisation, less in thrall to a rulebook that has not changed much since the party was founded in 1918. He believes local parties should become more like community action groups - forging links with other voluntary organisations.


  • Labour - £41 standard, £20.50 unwaged and pensioners, £1 youth, £20.50 (union or affiliate group member)
  • Conservatives - £25 standard, £5 (under 23)
  • Lib Dem - £12 standard, £6 students and unwaged

Labour's annual conference could be opened up to campaign groups and charities - who will be allowed to speak from the floor in debates (but not to vote on policies).

But the proposals have not gone down well with some Labour members.

They are particularly upset that members of a planned Labour "supporters network" could get the right to vote in leadership elections.

What, they argue, is the point of paying a subscription fee - which at £41 is currently the highest of the main three parties - if you do not get some privileges?


The Conservatives have also thrown the party open to non-members and supporters - as well as launching a more conventional recruitment drive.

"I think many find the idea of committing themselves to one party for life a bit scary," says Jonathan Isaby, who recently joined the Taxpayers Alliance pressure group as its political director.

"There are a lot of people who don't want to sign on the dotted line to join a party, but who are equally happy to help out by delivering leaflets for a particular candidate they want to support.

"And that can be just as useful as donating money, if not more so."

David Cameron's party is also trying to get members involved in policy formation - a process that had effectively died out - and it has pioneered the use of "open primaries" to select Tory election candidates.

The Lib Dems have also been opening up their party structures and meetings to non-members.

Labour conference, Brighton 1973 Are parties going the same way as variety?

Some commentators, such as Mark Pack, of the grassroots Lib Dem Voice website, believe parties need to broaden their support base in this way to avoid becoming unrepresentative of the public at large.

"There is a point at which you have to see the membership as atypical," he says.

This matters because party members can still have a big influence on government policy as well as getting to choose the party leaders and even, in certain circumstances, the prime minister.

For all their overblown rhetoric - and nothing attracts overblown rhetoric like party recruitment drives - the big parties have effectively given up on becoming mass membership organisations. There will be no return to the 1950s.

What we might be witnessing instead is the birth of a new kind of political party.

Not so much a religion to be followed by faithful, as a pastime to be pursued once or twice a year, when other commitments allow.

Not unlike the Caravan Club, in fact...


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  • rate this

    Comment number 130.

    Out with the old, in with the new.
    The present parties, politicians and system are institutionally corrupt and self-serving. There is no real democracy as politicians vote for the party line and not the wishes of constituents.
    We something new that we can genuinely place our trust in. That represents us, not big business. That won't tread on our dreams.

  • rate this

    Comment number 129.

    Parties used to represent widely different views, e.g. workers rights vs preservation of a working economy. The fearful joined parties in droves.

    Now a middle compromise has been reached and the passion has subsided, members have gone and parties are facing bankruptcy. They have to toady to rich sponsors to survive.

    The politicians at the top are people-manipulators, not problem solvers.

  • rate this

    Comment number 128.

    The main UK political parties are not offering anything that the public want to buy. They base their policies not on what the people want but on what will keep them in power and comfortable. The natural knock on effect of this is that they lose members and over time become less relevant.

  • rate this

    Comment number 127.

    Party politics tends to be a 'top-down' thing managed by paid politicians, and even if things that are of interest are mentioned, one is told what to think rather than left to debate and argue and actually decide what ought to be done.... and then go out and convince the electorate of the merit of your ideas come election time. This is why 'politics' is so marginalised these days.

  • rate this

    Comment number 126.

    Good article - people in the UK just aren't interested in joining Political Parties.

    Now let's see what happens in the autumn - will Aunty Beeb still devote about a million news hours to the Political Party Conference Season?

    I expect it will be wall to wall coverage, as usual.

  • rate this

    Comment number 125.

    111.Anna Oj
    Why would I want to support a coterie of English, white ... men?

    Because you're in England, which is predominantly white. Racist much?

  • rate this

    Comment number 124.

    alot of the trouble i think its that our policitical figures are just plain and boring. None of them are inspirational. Its time for a shake up, we need big characters with a bit of style to grab our attentions and imagination.

  • rate this

    Comment number 123.

    People have a wide range of views covered by different political parties. The differences between the main three parties are not as great as they were 20 years ago. I like some Conservative ideas and some Labour ones also. Maybe coalition government prevents extreme Bills? I am historically a Labour voter but the management of the current government is better. No party membership for me then!

  • rate this

    Comment number 122.

    I feel totally disillusioned by British politics. These people do not represent me. Every vote a person makes legitimises their faux position. I'd rather bunker down till they get deposed. Looking at the rest of the world I may not have long to wait.

  • rate this

    Comment number 121.

    It's been about getting the 1% in marginals who swing elections, career politicians, etc. for centuries.

    The difference is that it's now much easier, thanks to perception management and media relations, to propagate the illusion of differences, hence less need for actual differences.

    Informed people (i.e. who would otherwise join pol parties) can see through it so don't bother.

  • rate this

    Comment number 120.

    SNP membership is bucking the trend, record high membership numbers of 20,000

  • rate this

    Comment number 119.

    22 Minutes ago

    Conservative / Lib Dem or Labour party they are all so similar. Recent events have shown they have lost touch with the real world.
    ***No matter who you vote for the government always gets in. The real power lies with a faceless civil service who run govt. to allow the politicians to pose and spout rubbish. The parties are all run by graduates who know nothing but PR.

  • rate this

    Comment number 118.

    democracy where the percentage of reprasentatives is more proportional to the votes recieved there will remain little or no incentive to change and provide what the voters want rather than what the party thinks is best for us.
    Representatives need to get to represent the majority rather than the few who control who gets in in the "key" marginals. Then party numbers may climb, but not before.

  • rate this

    Comment number 117.

    This is futile. We know the answer. We, the general populace, have no control over politicians and they take absolutely no notice of us. Proof of the pudding? This comments list, and the fact that the politicians will take absolutely no notice of it despite its overwhelming condemnation of their behaviours and failures. Why do you do this to us BBC? To reinforce our sense of powerlessness?

  • rate this

    Comment number 116.

    Unfortunately our big 2 parties are just 2 sides of the same coin & both know that if they wait long enough they will be back in power so are never really answerable to the electorate. Smaller parties are denied any real clout by the voting system we have. What a surprise that the slightly more favourable system didn't get in; the vote from the big 2 saw to that. Unless we have a more democratic

  • rate this

    Comment number 115.

    Lack of involvement in party politics doesn't mean that people are disillusioned with politics. For many, it just means they don't see anything that needs fixing (not through politics anyway). Most of us are employed, housed, fed, entertained, and have healthcare that's free at the point of use. We'd probably get more interested in politics if we didn't!

  • rate this

    Comment number 114.

    This article needs

    More pointless

    Paragraph breaks.

  • rate this

    Comment number 113.

    The media and the party system stifle our politicians, the situation has produced a generation of stage-managed automatons. The retired politicians often talk the most sense, when they're no longer towing the party line or pursued by the press.

  • rate this

    Comment number 112.

    Until we return to the situation where our Parliament and our elected representitives are responsible for lawmaking then why would you join a party with no influence? The EU makes our laws, not our MP's who merely ratify whatever diktat Brussels throw at them. Our Parliament is just a talking shop. Also, with all three major parties sat in the centre there is little to choose between them.

  • Comment number 111.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.


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