Timeline of dissident republican activity
As Northern Ireland sees an upsurge in dissident republican attacks, here are some of the most serious incidents to take place since March 2009.
A bomb, containing 60kgs (132lbs) of home-made explosives, partially explodes inside a car in Belfast city centre on 24 November.
A masked gang hijacked the car, placed a bomb on board and ordered the driver to take it to a shopping centre.
It exploded as Army bomb experts prepared to examine the car left at the entrance to Victoria Square car park.
No-one was injured.
Old Bailey bomber Marian McGlinchey pleads guilty to providing a mobile phone linked to a Real IRA attack in which two soldiers were murdered.
McGlinchey, also known as Marian Price, admitted providing property for the purposes of terrorism.
The charge was connected to the attack on Massereene Army barracks in 2009.
She also admitted aiding and abetting the addressing of a meeting to encourage support for terrorism.
On 21 November, a bus driver is ordered to drive to a police station in Londonderry with a bomb on board.
A masked man boarded the bus in Ballymagroarty estate Wednesday and ordered the driver to go to Strand Road police station.
The bus driver drove a short distance to Northland Road, got her passengers off the bus and called the police.
A former police officer is the target of an under-car booby-trap bomb off the King's Road in east Belfast.
The man spotted the device when he checked under his vehicle at Kingsway Park, near Tullycarnet estate on 8 November.
The man was about to take his 12-year-old daughter to school.
Dissidents are blamed for a number of letter bomb attacks at the end of the month.
A package addressed to Secretary of State Theresa Villiers is made safe at Stormont Castle, two letter bombs addressed to senior police officers are intercepted at postal sorting offices, while, a similar device is sent to the offices of the Public Prosecution Service in Londonderry.
Five people with alleged links to dissident Irish republicanism appeared in court in Glasgow on 29 October charged with terror offences and conspiracy to murder.
On 18 October a "viable explosive device" is found during a security alert in Lurgan.
The alert in the Sloan Street area closed two schools, and caused widespread disruption in the County Armagh town. Police said they believe dissident republicans were responsible for planting the device.
Kevin Kearney, 46, is found dead in a lake in Alexandra Park, off the Antrim Road, north Belfast, on 9 October.
He had been shot dead the previous day. Dissident republicans said they killed Mr Kearney.
Four men have been arrested by police following a hoax bomb alert on the M1 motorway on 7 October.
The motorway was closed for a time between Belfast and Lisburn after a suspicious object was found on the Kennedy Way offslip.
An appeal court in Lithuania overturns the conviction of a man jailed for attempting to buy weapons for dissident republicans.
Michael Campbell was found guilty in October 2011 after an MI5 sting operation in 2008 recorded him attempting to buy explosives and guns.
He was originally sentenced to 12 years in prison. The appeal court judge found that prosecutors failed to prove his ties with the Real IRA.
A 45-year-old man is charged with possession of a firearm and ammunition in suspicious circumstances.
The charges are linked to an investigation into dissident republican terrorism in north Belfast.
Guns and ammunition are found in separate searches by police investigating dissident republican activity in Dublin and County Clare in the Republic of Ireland.
Footage appears to show a dissident republican gunman firing at police during rioting in the Ardoyne area of north Belfast on 12 July.
It shows the gunman firing towards police lines from within a crowd gathered at Brompton Park in Ardoyne.
After the last of 17 shots rings out, youths clap and cheer.
Irish police make what they say is their biggest ever find of dissident republican arms and explosives.
Guns, ammunition and 15kg of Semtex explosive are found on land at the Old Airport Road in Cloghran, north Dublin.
The arms include former Provisional IRA weapons, according to police.
Eight men appear before two special sittings of the Special Criminal Court in Dublin charged with offences linked to a police operation against dissident republicans in the city.
Seven arrested at a house in Tallaght on Wednesday were charged with membership of an unlawful organisation and have been remanded in custody.
At a separate sitting of the court a 45-year-old Dublin man was charged with IRA membership and possession of ammunition.
On 27 June, a 70-year-old man from west Belfast is sentenced to six and a half years for firearms and explosives offences.
Thomas Maguire, of Suffolk Drive, was arrested in August 2011, when police stopped his car following a car chase.
Dissident republicans issue a death threat against a woman journalist in Northern Ireland, according to a union.
The National Union of Journalists (NUJ) said the PSNI had informed the journalist about the threat.
A gun and ammunition are found by police investigating dissident republican activity in Cookstown, County Tyrone on 10 June.
Two police officers escape injury after two pipe bombs are thrown at them in north Belfast.
The officers were responding to an emergency 999 call in Ballysillan in the early hours of 28 May.
They had just got out of their vehicle on the Upper Crumlin Road when the devices were thrown. They took cover as the bombs exploded.
On 22 May police recover a gun during searches connected to dissident republican activity in the Short Strand area of east Belfast.
A bomb is removed from the Foxes Glen area of west Belfast on 17 May - the scene of a gun attack on police officers the previous day.
Up to six shots were fired as three officers got out of their vehicle in the area on Thursday afternoon. No-one was injured.
Sinn Fein says police warn Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness of a renewed threat from dissident republicans
Police investigating dissident republican activity seize contraband cigarettes worth £300,000 in south Armagh. A total of £50,000 in cash was also recovered.
Detectives investigating dissident terrorist activity uncover guns and ammunition in Craigavon.
The weapons and other items had been hidden on waste ground in the Pinebank area.
A 50-year-old woman who shot dead an innocent man in Dublin because she mistakenly believed he was involved in the murder of a Continuity IRA leader is sentenced to life in prison on 10 April.
Rose Lynch told police she "executed" David Darcy in November of 2011.
Lynch described herself as "an IRA volunteer".
On 7 April two men from Derriaghy, County Antrim, are charged with possession of a firearm in suspicious circumstances.
The weapon was recovered during a security alert on the Barnfield Road in Lisburn following a police investigation into dissident republican activity.
On 1 April, police vehicles have come under attack from youths throwing stones and other missiles at a dissident republican Easter commemoration in Londonderry.
Chief Constable Matt Baggott says dissident republican groups are trying to outdo each other.
Mr Baggott said the groups are in competition when it comes to the number of attacks they carry out.
He said that the "recklessness of their attacks is beyond measure".
Police escape injury after a bomb in a bin exploded on the Levin Road in Lurgan on 30 March.
Officers were investigating reports of an illegal parade in when the device went off near a primary school.
Petrol bombs are thrown at police during follow-up searches in the Kilwilkie area.
Police say a bomb meant to kill or injure officers on the outskirts of Belfast on 9 March may have been detonated by mobile telephone.
Officers were responding to a call on Duncrue pathway near the M5 motorway when the bomb partially exploded.
On 4 March, four live mortar bombs which police said were "primed and ready to go" are intercepted in a van in Londonderry.
The van had its roof cut back to allow the mortars to be fired. Police say they believed the target was a police station.
Three men are arrested.
It is the first time dissidents have attempted this type of mortar attack.
On 2 March, police investigating dissident republican activity charged a 23-year-old man with possessing items likely to be of use to terrorists.
It was believed the arrest was linked to a security alert in Larne, County Antrim.
On 26 February, the police and Army recover a rocket launcher and a warhead during a search of a house in Hawthorn Street, west Belfast.
A PSNI spokesman says the weapons systems were "clearly intended to kill" and the recovery had "saved lives".
On 25 February, two Cork men appear before Dublin's Special Criminal Court charged with firearms offences and membership of a paramilitary organisation.
Brian Walsh, 43, and Anthony Carroll, 30, were arrested in Togher two days earlier when police stopped a car and recovered two handguns.
On 8 February, Irish police find rocket launchers and explosives after they stopped two cars on the N24 in County Tipperary.
Garda detectives say they believe the weapons were ultimately destined for Northern Ireland.
Three men are arrested at the scene. Two are charged with membership of an unlawful paramilitary organisation while the third man is released without charge.
At the end of the month, dissident republicans were blamed for two pipe bomb attacks in north Belfast within the space of 24 hours.
On 29 January, the dissident republican group, Oglaigh na hEireann, claimed responsibility for planting a pipe bomb at a community centre on the Shore Road in north Belfast.
The following night, a pipe bomb was thrown at a police vehicle at the junction of Oldpark Road and Rosapenna Street. No-one was injured in either incident.
On 18 January, postal staff at a Royal Mail sorting office in Strabane, County Tyrone intercepted a suspicious package addressed to a senior police officer.
The envelope, addressed to Chief Inspector Andy Lemon, was found to contain a small bomb.
During the first week of the new year, a number of media outlets in the Republic report that paramilitaries had publicly issued death threats against Irish people serving in the British Army.
The threats were allegedly read out in a statement on behalf of the Continuity IRA during a republican commemoration in Limerick city on 6 January. Irish police declined to comment.
An off-duty policeman found a bomb attached to the underside of his car on the Upper Newtownards Road in east Belfast.
The officer found the device during a routine check of his family car on 30 December, as he prepared to take his wife and two children out to lunch.
Police said it was "clearly intended to kill the police officer".
An Irish newspaper reported that a paramilitary plot to murder a British soldier as he returned to the Irish Republic on home leave had been foiled by Irish police.
The Irish Independent said the Continuity IRA planned to shoot the soldier when he returned to County Limerick for his Christmas holidays.
Four days before Christmas, a 27-year-old man from County Monaghan man was jailed for three years for possession of a car bomb that was left outside Crossmaglen police station in County Armagh.
The device had been loaded into a stolen car and left outside the PSNI station on 3 April, 2010, where it failed to detonate.
On the first day of the month, a prison officer was shot and killed on the M1 in County Armagh as he drove to work at Maghaberry Prison, Northern Ireland's high security jail.
David Black, 52-year-old father of two, was the first prison officer to be murdered in Northern Ireland in almost 20 years.
The killing was widely condemned by all main political parties and police said they believed dissident republicans had carried out the attack.
On 12 November, a new paramilitary group calling itself "the IRA" claimed responsibility for the murder.
The organisation is believed to have been formed during the summer of 2012, from an amalgamation of previously disparate dissident republican organisations.
In a statement issued to the Belfast-based newspaper, the Irish News, the group said it had killed him "to protect and defend" republican prisoners.
The following day, a bomb was found close to a primary school in west Belfast.
Police said the device "could have been an under-car booby trap designed to kill and maim" and added they believed dissident republicans were responsible.
Police investigate possible links to drugs and the involvement of dissident republican paramilitaries in the murder of Newtownabbey man, Danny McKay, who is shot dead at his home in the Longlands area on 25 October.
A mortar bomb is found at a house in the Ardoyne area of north Belfast on 4 October.
Thirty families are moved out of their homes for several hours after police discovered the device at the back of a house in Jamaica Street.
A 21-year-old man is later charged with preparing terrorist acts and having explosives with intent to endanger life.
On 24 October, the Home Office confirmed the threat level from dissident republicans to Great Britain had been downgraded from "substantial" to "moderate", meaning the authorities regarded an attack as possible, but not likely.
However, on the same day the Home Office said the threat level in Northern Ireland remained "severe" with an attack by dissident republicans still regarded as highly likely.
On 27 September, police in Dublin investigating dissident republican activity arrested two men after surveillance equipment was found in a hotel room overlooking a police station.
It was believed the equipment was being used to record car registration plates and identify officers involved in operations against dissident activity.
Craigavon man Ciaran Martin Collins, 35, from Drumbeg, was charged with having a semi-automatic pistol in suspicious circumstances after being arrested in a car in Lurgan.
Two other men were released pending reports to the Public Prosecution Service.
Security forces were the target of two bombs left in Londonderry on 20 September.
A pipe bomb and booby trap bomb on a timer were both made safe by the Army.
The pipe bomb was left in a holdall at Derry City Council's office grounds and the booby trap attached to a bicycle chained to railings on a walkway at the back of the offices.
Dissident republicans were blamed for leaving the bombs.
On 12 September, a 52-year-old man appeared in court charged with having guns and ammunition.
Paul McDaid, of Sheridan Street, Belfast, was arrested after police stopped and searched a car on the A1 near Hillsborough.
Leading Real IRA man Alan Ryan, 32, was shot dead in the Clongriffin area of Dublin on 3 September.
In 2000, Ryan had been jailed over the discovery of a Real IRA training camp at Stamullen, County Meath.
The Dubliner was said to be "very well known in criminal and republican circles both north and south of the border".
Three men were subsequently charged over paramilitary displays at his funeral.
Eleven republicans, including prominent Lurgan dissident Colin Duffy, were convicted of wrecking their cells at Maghaberry Prison.
Each was given a 20-month suspended sentence for causing criminal damage in the jail's Roe House wing.
On 31 August, two men appeared in court charged with firearms offences in relation to dissident republican activity in Newtownabbey.
At the start of the month, police searched the Glen Road in west Belfast after dissident republicans claimed they fired a mortar at a police vehicle.
The attack was claimed to have taken place at the same time as a gun attack on a police patrol on Friday 27 July.
Although the gun attack did take place, police found no trace of any mortar and declared their search over on 3 August.
On 26 July, some dissident republican paramilitary groups issued a statement saying they were to come together under the banner of the IRA.
The Guardian newspaper said the Real IRA had been joined by Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) and a coalition of independent armed republican groups and individuals.
However, police say the threat posed by dissident republicans has not been changed since the announcement was made.
A gunman fired towards police lines from within a crowd gathered at Brompton Park in Ardoyne on 12 July.
After the last of 17 shots rings out, youths clapped and cheered. No-one was injured.
Scuffles broke out after dissident republican protesters blocked the Olympic Torch's planned route near the Guildhall in Londonderry on 4 June.
It was forced to go a different way in order to reach the Peace Bridge.
Two men later appeared in court over the trouble.
Republican Action Against Drugs said it was behind a bomb attack on a police vehicle in Londonderry on 2 June.
The front of the jeep was badly damaged in what is understood to have been a pipe bomb attack in Creggan. The police described the attack as attempted murder.
Four people appeared in court on 19 May on charges linked to an alleged terrorist training camp in County Tyrone.
They were Sharon Rafferty, from Cavana Linn in Pomeroy, Sean Kelly from Duneane Crescent in Toomebridge, Terence Aidan Coney, of Malabhui Road in Omagh and Gavin Coney from Gorticashel Road, also in Omagh.
The court was told that approximately 200 rounds were heard being fired at the Formil Wood site on Gorticashel Road on 30 March, 2012.
Bullet casings had also been recovered from the area.
On 19 May three relatives of prominent Lurgan dissident republican Colin Duffy appeared in court in Lisburn charged with terrorism offences.
They were Paul John Duffy, 47, from Ailsbury Gardens, Damien Duffy, 42, from Campbell Walk, and Shane Duffy, 41, from Kilwilkie Road.
The charges included collecting information likely to be of use to terrorists, conspiracy to murder, and conspiring to cause an explosion.
A number of guns found in north Belfast on 15 May were believed to be linked to dissident republicans, police said.
They were found at Etna Drive in the Ardoyne area. Police say the find "undoubtedly thwarted attempts of these criminals to inflict death, injury and misery on the community of north Belfast".
On 30 April it emerged that five men had fled Londonderry over the course of a week after being threatened by the vigilante group, Republican Action Against Drugs.
A bomb was found under a parked car in a garage on the Ballygomartin Road in north Belfast on 28 April.
Police said "the finger of suspicion points towards dissident republican terrorists".
On 27 April police found a number of guns and ammunition during an operation at Ardglen Place in north Belfast
A pipe bomb was left under a car belonging to the elderly parents of a police officer in Londonderry on 15 April.
A number of homes were evacuated while Army bomb experts dealt with the device at Drumleck Drive in Shantallow.
The serving PSNI officer does not live in the house.
A fully primed 600lb bomb was found in a van on the Fathom Line near Newry on 26 April and made safe the following day.
A senior police officer said those who left it had a "destructive, murderous intent".
Assistant Chief Constable Alastair Finlay said it was as "big a device as we have seen for a long time".
A paramilitary-style shooting in Londonderry was deliberately timed ahead of a rally against a dissident republican group, one of its organisers has claimed.
An 18-year-old man was shot in both legs at Rinmore Drive in Creggan shortly after 22:00 BST on 26 April.
On 30 March two men were convicted of murdering police officer Constable Stephen Carroll in Craigavon in March 2009.
The 48-year-old officer was shot dead after he and colleagues responded to a 999 call.
Convicted of the murder were Brendan McConville, 40, of Glenholme Avenue, Craigavon, and John Paul Wootton, 20, of Collindale, Lurgan.
Two men arrested after an Irish police raid on a suspected dissident republican bomb factory were found guilty of possessing explosive substances on 24 February.
Conan Murphy, 25, from Dundalk, and Philip McKevitt, 58, from Aghaboys, Louth, were arrested in Dundalk in May 2010..
On 16 February police in the Irish Republic recovered a handgun and three improvised explosive devices.
The items were found near Celbridge, County Kildare, on Thursday during ongoing investigations into the activities of dissident republicans.
Londonderry man Andrew Allen was shot dead in Buncrana, County Donegal, on 9 February.
The 24-year-old father of two was shot at a house in Links View Park, Lisfannon.
Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) later admitted it murdered Mr Allen who had been forced to leave his home city the previous year.
On 9 February a 43-year-old Londonderry man admitted a car bomb attack at the city's Strand Road PSNI Station.
No-one was injured in the August 2010 bombing, claimed by dissident republicans Oglaigh na hEireann, but several businesses were badly damaged.
Philip O'Donnell, of Baldrick Crescent, pleaded guilty to causing an explosion likely to endanger life. He also admitted hijacking the taxi containing the 200lb device and falsely imprisoning the taxi driver.
Strabane man Martin Kelly was jailed for life by the Special Criminal Court in Dublin on 24 January for the murder of a man in County Donegal.
Andrew Burns, 27, from Strabane, was shot twice in the back in February 2008 in a church car park.
The murder was linked to the dissident republican group, Oglaigh na hEireann. Kelly, from Barrack Steet, was also sentenced to eight years in prison for possession of a firearm.
On 20 January, Brian Shivers was convicted of the murders of Sappers Patrick Azimkar and Mark Quinsey at Massereene Barracks in March 2009.
His co-accused Colin Duffy was acquitted.
Police in Londonderry believed dissident republicans were responsible for two bomb attacks on 19 January.
The bombs exploded at the tourist centre on Foyle Street and on Strand Road, close to the DHSS office, within 10 minutes of each other.
Homes and businesses in the city were evacuated and no-one was injured.
A Scottish soldier found a bomb inside his car outside his girlfriend's house in the Ligoniel area of north Belfast.
The soldier found the device while cleaning the car before going to pick up a child from school on 5 January.
It is understood the device contained a trip wire attached to the seat belt.
Police say if the bomb had gone off the soldier, and others in the vicinity, could have been killed. Dissidents admit they carried out the attack.
A 59-year-old man was charged with possession of firearms and explosives in suspicious circumstances.
He was arrested in County Fermanagh on 19 December.
Republican protesters smeared excrement on the doors and windows of the Alliance Party headquarters in south Belfast.
Earlier in the year members of the Republican Network for Unity occupied the building in support of dissident prisoners at Maghaberry.
Northern Ireland Minister Hugo Swire warned about the possibility of dissident groups using upcoming centenaries for their own purposes.
He says Stormont must take the lead to ensure those who sought to undermine the political process were not able to do so.
A masked gang tried to shoot a man at a house in north Belfast on 9 November.
Three men wearing balaclavas and armed with a handgun entered a property in Ardilea Street off the Oldpark Road.
They held a man down and attempted to shoot him, but the gun failed to go off.
Dissident republicans later said they carried out the attack.
A bomb exploded outside the City of Culture offices in Londonderry on 12 October.
A warning with a recognised codeword is understood to have been given less than an hour before the explosion in Guildhall Square.
Security sources said the attack had all the hallmarks of dissident republicans, who damaged a door of the same building with a pipe bomb in January.
The next day about 250 people took part in a rally in the city centre to protest against the attack.
Three men were arrested after a car containing a bomb was stopped on the Buncrana Road in Londonderry on Monday 26 September.
The men were remanded in custody after appearing in court later that week.
The Real IRA was blamed for two bomb attacks near Claudy, County Londonderry on 14 September.
One of the bombs exploded outside the family home of a Catholic police officer. No-one was in the house at the time.
The other device was made safe at the home of a retired doctor who works for the police.
Londonderry man Thomas Christopher Nash was jailed for seven years for hiding guns and bullets for dissident republicans.
Nash, from Iveagh Park, Prehen, Londonderry admitted having a .22 calibre hunting rifle, ammunition and a silencer with intent on 9 August 2010.
He also admitted having an imitation AK47 assault rifle and an imitation handgun with intent to cause fear of violence, and a canister of CS spray.
Paddy Dixon, a former car thief who gave information to Irish police about stolen vehicles used to transport Real IRA bombs, suffered minor injuries in a pipe bomb attack at his home in County Meath.
It is thought dissident republicans may have been behind the attack.
It is understood Mr Dixon spotted the device just before it exploded and was able to back away from the full force of the blast.
Mr Dixon had never entered the Witness Protection Programme.
He is believed to have been living quite openly in Navan.
Five men are arrested, by police investigating the murder of Constable Ronan Kerr, during a series of raids, involving 200 officers across three counties on 26 July.
Clothing, mobile phones, computers and cars were taken away for forensic analysis following the searches in Coalisland, Toomebridge, Bellaghy and Ballyronan.
The men were later released.
Prominent republican Marian Price is charged on 22 July in connection with the murders of two soldiers in Antrim in March 2009.
She was charged with providing property for the purposes of terrorism.
The charge related to the murders of Sappers Patrick Azimkar and Mark Quinsey at Massereene barracks.
A mortar bomb and a quantity of cigarettes were uncovered during an arrest and search operation in the Etna Drive-Jamaica Street area of Ardoyne in north Belfast.
Seventy families were moved from their homes during the security operation on 21 July.
Irish police said they believed bomb components found in County Louth on 25 June were to be used for a device in Northern Ireland.
The Irish army carried out a controlled explosion at a site in Hackballscross.
Police described the find as significant and linked it to the dissident group Oglaigh na hEireann.
Police said they believed dissident republicans were responsible after a photographer was shot during violence on 21 June in east Belfast.
It happened during a second night of trouble at a sectarian flashpoint on the Lower Newtownards Road.
Police said the trouble was orchestrated by the loyalist paramilitary group, the UVF.
A pipe bomb exploded after being thrown into a house in Muff, County Donegal.
A man who was inside was not injured. Dissident republicans are suspected of being involved.
Two masked men throw a holdall containing a bomb into a Santander bank branch in Londonderry's Diamond just after midday on Saturday 21 May.
Police cleared the area and the bomb exploded an hour later. No-one was injured.
However, significant damage was caused inside the building.
A grenade was thrown at police officers during a security alert at Southway in Londonderry on 9 May.
The device, which was described as "viable", failed to explode.
Two children were talking to the officers when the grenade was thrown.
The mother of one of them said he could have been killed and whoever threw the grenade must have seen the children.
On 30 April, Michael Patrick Finbar Johnston, 28, from New Lodge Road, in north Belfast, is charged with having articles for the purpose of terrorism and of preparing for acts of terrorism.
He was arrested over the seizure of four bomb timers, a find that police linked to dissident republican activity.
Three men are charged on 25 April with possession of firearms, preparation for committing acts of terrorism and possession of articles likely to be of use to terrorists.
It follows the discovery of what police described as a "substantial amount" of machine guns and rifles in a vehicle in Keady, south Armagh.
More weapons were found in separate follow-up searches in south Armagh and east Tyrone.
Among them were Semtex explosives, a horizontal mortar, 25 kilos of homemade explosives, an automatic weapon, a silencer, ammunition, three timer power units, booster tubes and a detonator.
The dissident republican group, the Real IRA, threatened to kill more police officers and declared its opposition to the Queen's first visit to the Irish Republic.
A statement was read out by a masked man at a rally organised by the 32 County Sovereignty Movement in Londonderry on Easter Monday, 25 April.
A 500lb bomb was left in a van at an underpass on the main Belfast to Dublin Road in Newry.
The alert began on the night of Thursday 7 April and was cleared on Saturday 9 April. Several motorists drove past the vehicle on the Friday.
Constable Ronan Kerr was killed after a bomb exploded under his car outside his home in Omagh, County Tyrone, on 2 April.
No group claimed responsibility for the attack but dissident republicans were blamed.
The 25-year-old had joined the police in May 2010 and had been working in the community for five months.
Northern Ireland Chief Constable Matt Baggott described Constable Kerr as a "modern-day hero".
1. March 2009, Massereene Barracks, County Antrim: Sappers Patrick Azimkar and Mark Quinsey are killed as they collect pizzas outside their barracks. The Real IRA said it carried out the attack
2. March 2009, Craigavon, County Armagh: Constable Stephen Carroll, 48, is shot dead as he and police colleagues answer a call for help. The Continuity IRA says it shot the policeman
3. February 2010, Braehead Road, near the Irish border: The naked and bound body of 31-year-old dissident republican Kieran Doherty is found close to Londonderry. The Real IRA says it abducted and murdered him
4. April 2011, Omagh, County Tyrone: Constable Ronan Kerr is killed after a bomb explodes under his car outside his home. Dissident republicans have been blamed
Source: BBC News reports (court cases and incidents south of the border not included)
The PSNI described a bomb left near Londonderry courthouse as a "substantial viable device".
District Commander, Stephen Martin, said a beer keg, left in a stolen car, contained around 50kg of home-made explosives.
The alert started on the evening of Sunday 27 March.
Irish police investigated possible dissident republican involvement in the shooting of three people in a park in Blanchardstown, Dublin on Sunday 27 March.
Two of the injured men were shot in the body, the other in the head.
A number of shots were fired at police officers at Glen Road in Londonderry on the night of 2 March.
Police said it was an attempt to kill.
On 18 February Sinn Fein condemned a threat they said had been made by dissident republicans against the brother of Pat Finucane as "beyond contempt".
Gerry Kelly said the threat against community worker Seamus Finucane came from the dissident republican group, Oglaigh na hEireann (ONH).
Irish police investigating the activities of dissident republicans discovered items they said could be used to make explosive devices.
They were found during a search of a house in Barnstown in County Wexford.
On 30 January two men arrested in Galway after police found guns and explosives were charged at a court in Dublin.
They were charged with unlawful possession of an explosive substance, unlawful possession of a revolver and unlawful possession of ammunition.
The PSNI confirmed two bombs were found in a security alert that started on the Antrim Road in north Belfast on 23 January and lasted several days.
The second viable device was found behind a scout hall while the first found, an "anti-personnel device", was found outside a shop.
On 22 January, the leader of the Irish Republic's main opposition party, Edna Kenny of Fine Gael, told the Alliance Party conference, if he was the country's prime minister, he would do everything within his powers to combat the threat of dissident republicans.
Police in the Republic of Ireland questioned five men arrested in connection with the discovery of a "bomb factory" on a farm in County Kildare.
A 22-year-old man appeared in court on 12 January in connection with a dissident republican bomb attack on a police station in Londonderry.
A policeman found an unexploded grenade outside his home in County Fermanagh.
The device was discovered at the property in Drumreer Road, Maguiresbridge, on 23 December.
A terrorism charge against 40-year-old dissident republican Gary Donnelly from Londonderry was withdrawn on 22 December.
In the Republic, three men from Northern Ireland were jailed for IRA membership on 15 December.
Gerard McGarrigle, 46, from Mount Carmel Heights in Strabane was sentenced to five years in prison.
Desmond Donnelly, 58, from Drumall, Lisnarick, Fermanagh and Jim Murphy, 63, from Floraville in Enniskillen, were given three years and nine months.
They were arrested in Letterkenny in February after Irish police received a tip-off that dissident republicans were about to carry out a 'tiger' kidnapping.
On 10 December, the Police Federation claimed the level of dissident republican terrorist activity in Northern Ireland was being played down by the police and government to make NI appear more normal than it actually is.
A 21-year-old woman was charged with having a gun and ammunition with intent to endanger life on 5 December.
The arrest followed a search in west Belfast by detectives investigating suspected dissident republican activity.
Four men were arrested after an explosive device was found in a car near Dundalk, County Louth on 1 December.
The device, described by police as a viable mortar, was made safe by bomb disposal experts.
A meeting of the Derry DPP in the Guildhall on 25 November had to be abandoned after republican protesters blew horns and chanted slogans.
A military hand grenade was used to attack police officers called to a robbery at Shaw's Road in west Belfast on 5 November.
Three police officers were hurt and one of them suffered seri ous arm injuries when the grenade was thrown by a cyclist who then made off.
The dissident paramilitary group Oglaigh na hEireann (ONH) said it was responsible for the attack.
Two men were shot in the legs in attacks in Londonderry in the space of 48 hours - the first on Sunday 17 October, the second on Tuesday 19 October.
A general purpose machine-gun and improvised mortar bomb were among the weapons found in a police search in a wooded area at Togher, Dunleer, County Louth on 11 October.
Ten people were arrested after Irish police found weapons and bomb making material in raids in Counties Louth, Wexford and Waterford on 8 October.
Two men later appeared in court while files were prepared for the DPP on the others.
A car bomb exploded close to the Ulster Bank, shops and a hotel on Londonderry's Culmore Road on 4 October.
The area had been cleared when the bomb exploded, but the blast was so strong that a police officer who was standing close to the cordon was knocked off his feet.
Masonry and glass from smashed windows were strewn across the Culmore Road.
Lurgan man Paul McCaugherty was jailed for 20 years for a dissident republican gun smuggling plot that was uncovered after an MI5 sting operation.
McCaugherty was found guilty of attempting to import weapons and explosives.
Dermot Declan Gregory from Crossmaglen, was found guilty of making a Portuguese property available for the purpose of terrorism. He was sentenced to four years.
A 54-year-old Newry man was charged with seven offences including possession of firearms and ammunition with intent in the preparation of acts of terrorism after police discovered firearms including a "walking stick which could be turned into a gun" in the shed of a house.
On 24 September, Home Secretary Theresa May said an attack on Britain by "Irish-related" terrorists is a "strong possibility".
She was speaking as MI5 raised the country's threat level.
The British and Irish governments again insisted they are not holding talks with the dissidents.
The head of MI5 told a meeting of security professionals in London that the threat from dissident republicans is rising.
Jonathan Evans said MI5 could not rule out the possibility of dissidents extending their attacks to Great Britain.
Three children suffer minor injuries when a bomb exploded in a bin in Lurgan's North Street on 14 August.
The bomb went off at a junction where police would have been expected to put up a cordon around the school. The explosion injured the children after it blew a hole in a metal fence.
Three other alerts in the town were declared elaborate hoaxes.
Chief Inspector Sam Cordner said the attack had "stark similarities" to the 1998 Omagh atrocity.
Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness told the BBC the British government has talked to dissident republicans in recent weeks,
He also said the Irish government had been meeting with dissidents for years.
A booby trap partially exploded under the car of a former policeman in Cookstown, County Tyrone, on 10 August.
The man was unhurt in the attack, but it is the first time one of the latest series of booby-trap bombs detonates.
A bomb is found under the car of a Catholic policewoman in Kilkeel in County Down on 8 August.
It is believed the device fell off the car before being spotted by the officer.
Irish police investigating dissident republican activity arrest five men in County Louth on the same day.
Guns, ammunition and balaclavas are found in two cars during the operation.
On 4 August, booby trap bomb was found under a soldier's car in Bangor.
It was thought the device could have been planted by dissident republicans close to the base where he was stationed and he drove home without it being detected.
It then fell off and he discovered it as he was about to leave his home.
A car that exploded outside a police station in Londonderry contained 200lb of homemade explosives.
No-one was injured in the attack, which happened on 3 August, but several businesses were badly damaged in the blast.
On 28 July, an 18-year-old man was abducted in west Belfast and driven two miles away to the Lenadoon estate where he was shot in both legs.
Police said a shooting at a house in Londonderry on 26 July could be linked to the vigilante group Republican Action Against Drugs.
Three men and a woman were in the property at Dunmore Gardens when four masked men forced their way in and fired two shots.
Four men and a teenage boy were arrested on the Falls Road in west Belfast following an attempted paramilitary shooting at a house in the St James' area.
The five were later charged with terrorism offences.
The remains of an exploded pipe bomb were found in the grounds of a west Belfast police station on 22 July.
The device was discovered at Woodbourne PSNI station on the Stewartstown Road.
A bomb exploded between Belleeks and Cullyhanna in south Armagh, blowing a crater in the road and damaging a stone bridge on 10 July.
Police viewed it as an attempt to lure them into the area in order to carry out a follow-up ambush.
Dissident republicans were blamed for organising two nights of sustained rioting in the Broadway and Bog Meadows areas of west Belfast on Friday 2 and Saturday 3 July.
Later rioting on 11, 12, 13 and 14 July in south and north Belfast, Lurgan and Londonderry is also believed to have involved dissidents.
Scores of police officers were injured during the violence, which featured gun attacks, petrol bombs and other missiles being thrown.
Five men were arrested after police stopped three cars near Omeath in County Louth on 10 July.
Irish police suspected they were trying to move explosives across the border.
One man was charged, while four others were released while a file was prepared for the DPP.
Shots are fired at Crossmaglen PSNI station on 2 July.
Dissident republicans said they were behind two similar attacks in December and January.
On 30 June, two men were convicted of attempting to import weapons and explosives for use by dissident republicans.
Paul McCaugherty, 43, of Beech Court in Lurgan and Dermot Declan Gregory of Concession Road in Crossmaglen, were caught in an MI5 sting operation.
A Belfast court heard McCaugherty handled over bundles of euros in a specially adapted bag to an undercover agent, saying he needed "explosives, pistols, AK-47s, armour-piercing stuff, snipers, cords and detonators".
A report by the Independent Monitoring Commission on 26 May said dissidents "remain highly active and dangerous".
It said the threat was "very serious" but they were not able to mount a campaign like the Provisional IRA.
Two men were charged with explosives offences after the discovery of an alleged dissident bomb-making factory near Dundalk on 22 May.
Irish Justice Minister Dermot Ahern said the find foiled an attack in Northern Ireland.
A car bomb exploded outside Newtownhamilton police station, injuring two people.
Local residents also reported hearing gunshots before the blast.
Police chiefs said the threat from dissident republicans was higher than at any time since the Omagh bomb almost 12 years ago.
Senior police officers believed rival factions in the Real IRA and Continuity IRA have increased co-operation and stepped up recruitment.
There were five pipe bomb attacks on houses in the west of Northern Ireland in a week - two of them claimed by a group calling itself Republican Action Against Drugs.
A car bomb was defused outside Newtownhamilton police station in south Armagh on Tuesday 13 April.
A bomb in a hijacked taxi exploded outside Palace Barracks in Holywood, on Monday 12 April - the day policing and justice powers were transferred to Northern Ireland.
One man suffers minor injuries.
A two-day protest by dissident republicans at Maghaberry Prison ended on Easter Tuesday. The prisoners had barricaded themselves into a dining room.
Police say a car bomb left outside Crossmaglen on Easter Saturday night could have killed or seriously injured anyone in the area. The bomb - made up of a number of flammable containers - was made safe by Army experts.
On 12 April, the Real IRA leaves a no-warning car bomb outside MI5's Northern Ireland headquarters at Palace Barracks in Holywood, County Down.
The blast is timed for the same day that policing and justice powers are devolved from Westminster to Stormont. An elderly man walking near the Army base at the time of the explosion is treated in hospital for minor injuries, but the bomb causes little damage.
Dissidents were also blamed for a series of alerts in Belfast, Londonderry and on the railway line in south Armagh, which caused major traffic disruption on Friday 19 March.
Shots were fired at police as they investigated the railway alert, although no-one was injured.
On 24 February, the naked and bound body of 31-year-old Kieran Doherty was found close to the Irish border near Derry.
The Real IRA said it killed Mr Doherty who, it said, was one of its members.
Dissidents are also believed to have been behind a number of paramilitary-style shootings in the city in recent months.
Two days earlier a bomb damaged the gates of Newry courthouse.
Officers were evacuating the area when the bomb went off. Police said it was a miracle no-one was killed.
February had begun with Irish police stopping a suspected attack by dissident republicans in County Donegal.
A car was stopped at Cooladawson, near Stranorlar, and a man arrested.
Three other men who were in the car ran off across fields. A gun was also recovered.
In Belfast, 40 families were moved from their homes after a pipe bomb was thrown at a police station.
Dissidents were also suspected of being involved in organising rioting in the Craigavon area at the end of the month.
In Cork, cash, drugs and a number of suspected imitation guns were seized during a major operation targeting dissident republican paramilitaries.
The operation followed a claim from the Real IRA that it shot dead a convicted drug dealer in Cork on 20 January.
There was widespread condemnation in Londonderry over a campaign by the 32 County Sovereignty Movement.
The group, regarded as the Real IRA's political wing, said it would picket shops that deal with the police in protest at stop and search tactics.
A 33-year-old Catholic police officer was seriously injured in a dissident republican car bomb about a mile from his home in Randalstown, County Antrim.
A PSNI spokesman said it was too early to say which group was behind the attack.
The family of a Londonderry shopkeeper who sells smoking paraphernalia and "legal highs" said they believe he was shot and injured by dissident republicans on 27 January because of his business.
On the last day of the month the Real IRA opened fire on a police station in County Armagh.
No-one was injured in the attack in Bessbrook, but Ulster Unionist MLA Danny Kennedy said he condemned "this act of wanton intent and murder".
Shots were fired at Crossmaglen police station on 30 December. No-one wa s injured.
The body set up to monitor paramilitary activity in Northern Ireland said dissident republicans were more active than at any time in the last four and a half years.
The Independent Monitoring Commission published its 20th report which said dissidents were directing their efforts to kill PSNI officers.
Dissident republicans were also blamed for leaving a car containing a 400lb bomb outside the Policing Board's headquarters in Belfast.
The car, which had been driven through a barrier by two men who then ran off, burst into flames when the device partially exploded.
On the same night, shots were fired during an undercover police operation in the County Fermanagh village of Garrison in what police described as an attempt to kill a trainee PSNI officer.
Five men were arrested by police on both sides of the border.
Two of the men, a former Irish army reservist and an unsuccessful council election candidate, were later charged with attempted murder.
One of Northern Ireland's highest profile judges moved out of his Belfast home over fears of a dissident republican threat against him.
Mr Justice Treacy's £650,000 house was bought under the Housing Executive's Special Purchase of Evacuated Dwellings (Sped) scheme.
Four men dressed in paramilitary style uniform and black masks fired a volley of shots over the coffin of a dissident republican who died in a Londonderry police station.
It was believed that John Brady had taken his own life at Strand Road police station days earlier.
The dissident republican vigilante group, Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) claimed responsibility for shooting and injuring a 27-year-old man in Londonderry.
One of the police officers who went to the scene of the gun attack was knocked unconscious after he was hit on the head with a lump of concrete.
The DUP's Ian Paisley Jnr said police had warned him that dissident republicans were planning to murder him.
Mr Paisley, who is a member of the Northern Ireland Policing Board, said officers contacted him to inform him of the foiled attack.
A police officer's partner was injured when a bomb exploded under her car in east Belfast.
The 38-year-old was reversing the vehicle out of the driveway of a house in the east of the city when the device exploded.
In the same month a bomb exploded inside a Territorial Army base in north Belfast.
The police confirmed that "some blast damage" had occurred inside the base off the Antrim Road and shrapnel from the overnight explosion was found in neighbouring streets.
The PSNI said a 600lb bomb left near the Irish border in south Armagh was intended to kill its officers.
The bomb was defused by the army near the village of Forkhill.
Days later the Real IRA claimed responsibility for placing two explosive devices near their homes of a policeman's relatives in Londonderry.
The first device exploded outside his parents' home while a second device, which was found outside his sister's home, was taken away for examination by the army.
A group of armed and masked men, believed to be from a faction of the Real IRA, set up a roadblock in the south Armagh village of Meigh.
They handed out leaflets warning people against co-operating with the security forces on either side of the border.
Sinn Fein blamed the Real IRA for orchestrating rioting in north Belfast. At least one shot was fired at police and two blast bombs were thrown.
Dissident republican protesters disrupted a meeting of the District Policing Partnership in Derry.
Conor Murphy, a Sinn Fein MP and minister in Northern Ireland's devolved administration, blamed dissident republicans for an arson attack on his home in south Armagh.
Dissident republicans were suspected of involvement in a petrol bomb attack on the Derry home of senior Sinn Fein member Mitchel McLaughlin.
The Real IRA in Londonderry said it shot a convicted rapist in the legs, one of a series of such attacks in Derry during this time.
Northern Ireland's Deputy First Minister, Martin McGuinness, said dissident republicans had threatened to kill him.
Two young soldiers were shot dead as they collected pizzas outside Massereene Barracks in County Antrim.
Sappers Patrick Azimkar and Mark Quinsey were killed just hours before they were due to be deployed to Afghanistan.
The Real IRA was blamed for this attack.
Within 48 hours a policeman, Stephen Carroll, was shot dead in Craigavon.
He was the first police officer to be murdered in Northern Ireland since 1998.