Story of Paralympics founder Sir Ludwig Guttmann
24 August 2012 Last updated at 11:52 BST
The BBC looks at the story of Sir Ludwig Guttmann, the neurosurgeon who founded of the Paralympic Games.
The Jewish doctor arrived in Oxford in 1939 having fled Nazi Germany.
On the request of the government, in 1944 he opened the UK's first ever spinal injuries unit at Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Buckinghamshire.
To coincide with the opening of the 1948 London Olympics, Sir Ludwig held the first Stoke Mandeville Games. Sixteen athletes competed on the lawn of the hospital.