Deportee Jimmy Mubenga's last moments of struggle
The inquest into Jimmy Mubenga's death on the flight deporting him from the UK heard evidence over eight weeks and finally the jury of three women and seven men has reached its verdict of unlawful killing.
Jimmy Mubenga, 46, came to Britain from Angola in 1994.
His wife Adrienne Makenda Kambana soon joined him and they had five children, the youngest of whom was seven months old when Mr Mubenga died on 12 October 2010.
Like many refugees, the family lived a precarious life, uncertain about their status for much of their early years in the UK.
Eventually the couple settled, their children were raised as Londoners and became British citizens.
In 2006, Mr Mubenga became involved in a dispute on an evening out that led him to being convicted of actual bodily harm and he served two years in prison.Traumatic separation
It was this event that compromised his status and the Home Office ruled his stay would not be conducive to the public good.
End Quote Adrienne Makenda Kambana Jimmy Mubenga's wife
Justice will help my children not to be angry about what happened to their father”
He was served with a deportation notice and the family took the decision it would be better for the children to stay in the UK.
On the day of his deportation, four contracted G4S detainee custody officers arrived at the removal centre Brook House to accompany him to Angola.
One of them, Terence Hughes, told the inquest Jimmy "came across straight away as a nice guy".
"He was just busy on the phone all the time. We had no need to handcuff him," he added.
He was speaking to his wife, eldest son and other members of the family.
In his desperation about leaving the UK, his wife said her husband asked her: "Why are they trying to end my life?"'I cannot breathe'
The officers, all experienced, admitted at the inquest at Isleworth Crown Court to exchanging racist jokes by text and referring to restraint techniques where detainees were held face down on the floor as "carpet karaoke".
When they arrived at Heathrow Airport, Mr Mubenga and all four guards went to the back of the plane - where it is usual to keep deportees.
As the plane was readied for departure, Mr Mubenga asked to go to the toilet adjacent to where he was sitting.
As their dealings had been entirely cordial to that point none of the guards objected.
The inquest had to rely on the recollections of the guards about what happened on his return because no-one else witnessed what triggered the unfolding events.
After being asked to retake his seat, a struggle ensued after Mr Mubenga allegedly shouted out "I'm not going to go!" and lunged at one of them.
Mr Mubenga was wrestled back into his seat and they handcuffed him, with his hands behind his back, as other passengers looked on.
Pressure was then consistently applied to his back and neck to force his head forward.
Passenger Thomas Buckley said he heard Mr Mubenga say: "Let me up. You're killing me, you're killing me, you're killing me."
One of the officers was heard telling him: "Stop struggling. We'll let you go once we are airborne."
The restraint continued for an estimated 35 minutes as the plane prepared to taxi to the runway for take-off.
By now all three officers described applying pressure to Jimmy's back.'Just gave up'
One passenger described seeing an officer leaning on Mr Mubenga's neck with his knee.
The flight never got to take off as one of the officers described the moment when "suddenly it was as if he just gave up".
As they all pulled him upright in his seat, officer Stuart Tribelnig described how Mr Mubenga's eyes and mouth were wide open.
He was anxious and asked the flight attendant to tell the captain they needed an ambulance and should return to the stand.
During the next 15 minutes the G4S officers did not administer first aid, other than to check whether Mr Mubenga had a pulse. Paramedics' attempts to resuscitate him failed.
The officers revealed under questioning they were not adequately trained to deal with emergencies, although they often faced similar circumstances during deportations.
Pathologist evidence at the inquest, including from Dr Nat Cary, made it clear "it seems appropriate to record restraint as being the underlying cause of death".
Mr Mubenga had died of a heart attack brought about by positional asphyxia.
His wife told the inquest: "Justice will help my children not to be angry about what happened to their father.
"Jimmy was a lovely man. A good father and I miss him."