Source of Stilton cheese's unique smell revealed
It is a favourite food at Christmas, often served with a glass of port.
Stilton is known as much for its unique smell as for its strong taste and distinctive blue-veined appearance.
But exactly what gives it and other blue cheeses their particular aroma has always been a mystery.
Now scientists at the University of Northampton and University of Nottingham have pinpointed for the first time the yeast that enhances the smell of the cheeses.
A study has been looking at the role of various micro-organisms in the production of the East Midlands' famous blue cheeses, like Stilton.
Scientists used a team of trained sensory experts to work out which particular strain of yeast was responsible for the smell.
They hope their work could lead to better quality and consistency and fewer defects in the manufacturing process.'More consistent'
- Blue Stilton was given Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status by the European Union in 1996
- The designation is intended to help regionally distinct food - such as Champagne and Parma ham - resist competition from similar products made elsewhere
- Only five dairies, in Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire, are licensed to produce Blue Stilton
- The cheese is generally agreed to have gained its name after being sold to travellers passing through the village of Stilton in Cambridgeshire
- Villagers in Stilton are fighting for the right to use the name for their own cheese, produced in the village
Micro-organisms - known in the trade as starter cultures - are added to milk in the manufacture of cheeses.
But "secondary flora" - mainly present in the atmosphere - find their way into the cheeses and help to give them their special character.
Although the mould Penicillium roqueforti is added by manufacturers to produce the "blue" in cheeses, researchers found a yeast called Y. lipolytica directly influenced their smell.
"The panel was able to discriminate between samples with different yeast levels, suggesting that the variation in microbial flora was noticeable in the aroma," said Dr Kostas Gkatzionis, of the University of Northampton.
"Limiting aroma variation is paramount to producing more consistent blue cheeses."
The research project received a £53,000 grant from The Food and Drink Innovation Network (iNet).
Director Richard Worrall said: "Ultimately, we hope this work will lead to greater consistency during production for Britain's cheese-makers, which will help them achieve a greater slice of the worldwide blue cheese market, which is worth millions."
Scientists worked on the project with Stichelton Dairy at Cuckney, near Mansfield, Nottinghamshire.
The dairy produces a blue cheese made from raw milk which, although similar to the famous cheese, cannot be called Stilton.
The name is protected by European Union law and can be applied only to cheeses that meet strict criteria.
Currently only five dairies, in Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire, are licensed to produce Blue Stilton.