Scouts, Starbucks, the Sun and Sister: Who is doing their duty?

Baden Powell

What do current news stories about the Leveson report, Starbucks, nursing and the Scouts have in common? They all have an underlying theme - what it means to do one's duty.

As a young cub with the First Glasgow Scouts in the 1960s, I remember feeling a profound sense of solemnity and significance as I saluted and intoned the promise, on my honour, "to do my duty to God and to the Queen".

As the scouting movement debates whether atheists should be able to opt out of the "God" bit, I have been thinking about the "duty".

It is a word that underpins many of the public debates of our times.

Today, nurses are being encouraged to act upon the personal duty of care they owe their patients; newspaper editors are trying to convince the prime minister they will respect the duty to maintain the highest press standards; big businesses and wealthy individuals are being reminded by the chancellor of their duty to pay their fair share in taxes.

In all three cases, the concept of duty goes beyond legal or statutory obligations to encompass what is morally right. At issue is whether we can and should trust Sister, Starbucks or the Sun to do the right thing.

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The concept of duty goes beyond legal or statutory obligations to encompass what is morally right”

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When we talk about children learning the difference between right and wrong, we forget that young people often have a far more black and white view of such matters than their elders. The duties of a Scout stem from a sense of personal obligation to live life according to a code of conduct, without earthly sanction.

The scout law exists, but no cub or beaver is going to get punished for not being considerate, courageous or careful with possessions. The promise is about doing one's best, on one's honour. The duty is founded upon individual integrity and social trust.

This appeal to intrinsic human decency acts very powerfully on the young. Just as Father Christmas knows whether you have been good or bad, so children often see no blurred edges in the boundary between naughty and nice.

And the side of the line you end up on, children believe, is down to you.

The newspaper editors meeting David Cameron today think the press should be regulated in the same way. The Press Complaints Commission code begins with an acceptance that "all members of the press have a duty to maintain the highest professional standards".

But it is a duty that the Leveson report found had been breached on "far too many occasions", causing real hardship and wreaking havoc on the lives of the innocent. Trust and personal integrity had not been enough to ensure standards were upheld.

When the government talks about the immorality of those who "aggressively" avoid paying tax, they are referring to a personal rather than legal duty. Starbucks is being exhorted to do the right thing even if that is not necessarily an obligation in law.

Nurses Nurses are bound by a duty of care

Registered nurses also promise to abide by a duty to "make the care of people your first concern, treating them as individuals and respecting their dignity". The phrase is one of the first in the code of conduct operated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council and it is that sense of obligation that England's chief nursing officer is referring to when she says action must be taken to ensure the values nurses stand for are not betrayed.

But such promises and commitments are not enough for public sector workers and organisations. For nurses and many others, the "duty of care" is now both a legal and professional obligation.

Indeed, the area covered by statutory duty has expanded hugely in the last couple of centuries. When a boy lost an arm in the cog-wheels of a steam winch owned by Lord Wimborne, the courts ruled in a landmark judgment in 1898 that the factory boss had breached an absolute duty imposed on him by statute.

The root of the word duty is the Latin verb "debere" - "to owe", or "to have to". It is about debt, that which is due or owing.

As such, it is not a passive concept. It requires the active fulfilment of an obligation. Lord Wimborne had a positive duty to protect the boy from the cog-wheels by ensuring there was a safety guard or fence.

In the public sector, specific legal duties in relation to race, disability and gender have now been incorporated into a general public duty, backed by the law. But there are also the non-statutory so-called "Nolan principles" as set out by the Committee on Standards in Public Life following the sleaze scandals of the mid-90s.

The seven principles, now enshrined in the ministerial code, are selflessness, integrity, objectivity, accountability, openness, honesty and leadership. The code echoes the Scout Promise with its demands for trustworthiness, loyalty, consideration, courage, care and respect.

I like to imagine the Cabinet saluting as they intone the Nolan principles at the start of each day.

At issue is whether we can trust each other to "do our best to do our duty". Trust is in short supply. We need to believe that people have a sense of duty born of moral and ethical principle rather than the law. But our confidence in the integrity of those with power is at an all-time low.

Mark Easton Article written by Mark Easton Mark Easton Home editor

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  • rate this

    Comment number 19.

    Since we adopted Capitalism as our underlying basic principle, 'Profit' became God. The only duty is profit and the only morality is doing what is profitable. We now want government to run like a business, and that means 'Profit' transcends 'Duty, Patriotism, and Morals'. The 'Bottom Line' has become more important than 'Common Good' to leaders since we elect 'businessmen' to lead us.

  • rate this

    Comment number 18.

    Bah humbug........pull the other one......the idea of "leadership" is a complete nonsense and as for "fairness" Dylan once sang; "....good and bad, i define these terms............." The subject your correspondent should study is axiology; the study of values ........

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.

    Right and wrong has always been a matter of opinion. As soon as you pick 'Gods law', one has to ask 'which one'. I suspect, for example, that you do not base your particular judgements on Sharia, the teachings of the Great Spirit or the importance the Maya attached to human sacrifice.

    Ask 9 year olds about fairness though and I think it would be pretty consistent across time and space.

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    So, a new yardstick for the press, parliamentarians et al:

    If we explain your actions to a nine year old child, will you be able to look them in the face and tell them that you thought it was ok? And will they believe you?

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    Interesting that Scouts are debating whether to leave God out of their promise. But if you do, right and wrong become just matters of opinion. How do you fulfil your duty to do right if you're not sure what is right?

    Of course many people without religious belief do know right from wrong, but increasingly one man's black is another's white or grey. With no plumbline we build crooked walls.

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    Unfortunately, as an adult duties conflict. I believe the managers of firms have a well defined, legally enforceable 'fiduciary duty' (or somesuch) to maximise value for shareholders, effectively obliging them to avoid tax unless they can demonstrate that the value of tax paid is exceeded by the value of goodwill gained.
    I never said the law isn't an ass...

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    Now there's a concept our "elite" could do with learning about.....

    .....banking industry near bankrupting the nation.....MPs avoidance by multi nationals.....Police abusing non violent protestors.....

    ....these people are our leaders & are supposed to be setting our young people a good example......

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    Lived my life by the concept of 'duty' for many years.

    I see it as being about doing what is right, even when against your own interests.

    Currently this concept is suspended.

    There is now no nation, society or any other justification for 'duty'. I see it as every man for himself until things change.

    If you want me to do something - pay me.

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    And our government have a 'duty' to their people, but they seem to have forgotton that!

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    It does seem, at last, that Italy is getting to grips with its former leader, Burlusconi's bunga bunga party, off course in power as a war between Sky Italia and Mediaset, Italy's largest private broadcaster erupted. The European Union ruled in July 2010 in Sky's favour, a position upheld by Italy's top administrative court last February.

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    You might care to let George Entwistle know that a top post across at New Int. is shortly to be filled after Tom Mockridge steps down.

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    Interesting assessment, so often and perhaps most often, responsibility is first to ones self. Various of the professions blow up, every so often and that is the eay of things. It is always about money and that has not been paramount to Leveson's findings or judgement of NI and the press. Oddly, not a BBC problem.

    Flying by, this article points at troubles

  • rate this

    Comment number 7.

    We shouldn't forget that these organisations are led by people like us - most of them try their best to live a good life.

    But when 'everyone else' is minimising their tax bills, and 'everyone else' is clocking out at 5pm, it's harder to go the extra mile yourself.

    We all need to spread the good stories as well as the bad ones - to give people faith that 'everyone else' is trying hard too.

  • rate this

    Comment number 6.

    Surely businesses are run by people who've a sense of right and wrong. A business should be able and expected to incorporate ethical duties to those they affect as well as to their owners or shareholders. This possibility shouldn't need forcing by legislation, or denied by existing law. But I have yet to see the logic of scout leaders who have promised God one thing but now seem to be in denial.

  • rate this

    Comment number 5.

    A very thoughtful piece.
    Loyalty is one of those old fashioned moral goods that I find has been corroded by business and poor morals, infected by money and the law.
    A loyal customer used to be cherished - today they are taken for granted, loyal customers left invested in low interest accounts - new ones offered the world (for 3 months anyway). It pays to be disloyal because loyalty is abused.

  • rate this

    Comment number 4.

    Symptoms of a sinking society, corroded by selfishness that starts at the top. Hardly anyone cares any more - look at the corruption of the nursing profession.

    I blame government with its excessive debts, open-door immigration policy, & failure to provide safe streets.

    There's no way back - declining socities only get worse. Fin de siecle...

  • rate this

    Comment number 3.

    An excellent article. I fear however that the difference between nurses, teachers, scouts on the one hand, and big business on the other, is their motivation. Care and duty are different animals to making profits.

  • rate this

    Comment number 2.

    There's a problem here. People can make ethical judgements, corporations can't. Corporations are just legal entities. If you want corporations to behave properly you have to use the law (whether that is through statute or commercial agreement).

  • rate this

    Comment number 1.

    Unfortunately organisations like the Sun, Google, Amazon are large corporations and dont do morality although it may suit their corporate 'duty' to maximise financial gain to appear to be doing the moral thing. 'Morality' for them is fear of losing business. Many people cannot afford to be moral and the mores of free market society is for personal gain even if at the expense of fellow citizens.



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