Should word-of-mouth be child's play for advertisers?

Weetabix "brand ambassadors" Thomas and Jack Milmine (image courtesy Weetabix) "Brand ambassadors" must make it clear they are being paid to promote products

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Advertisers are increasingly trying to find ways to get consumers to spread the word about their products, but controversy over the involvement of children in this is forcing the advertising industry to examine its practices.

Personal recommendations can be big business.

Often when advertisers try to convince us of the life-enhancing qualities of some new product, we don't buy it. But a recommendation from a friend can be far more persuasive.

"There is this idea that it is a more trusted source, if you have got members of the public saying how brilliant your brand is," says Charlotte McEleny, senior reporter at New Media Age magazine.

"You trust your friends more than you do marketing messages."

However, concerns over the involvement of children in what's called peer-to-peer marketing were expressed in the recent Bailey Review for the government looking at pressures on growing up.

A particular area of concern was the use of "brand ambassadors", where companies recruit children with perceived influence among their peers, and reward them to promote products face-to-face to friends and online on social networks and blogs.

Start Quote

Charlotte McEleny

It's not only because it's more trusted, it's cheaper”

End Quote Charlotte McEleny Senior reporter, New Media Age magazine

Cereal-maker Weetabix recently scoured the country for especially busy children, and is paying 15 youngsters - including a pair of seven-year-old twin boys - to wear Weetabix-branded clothing on their most-active days.

The cereal-maker admits that using children in marketing is controversial, but said its scheme was "completely above board" and required parental consent.

While industry rules say children "must not be made to feel inferior or unpopular for not buying the advertised product", the Advertising Standards Authority says the use of child brand ambassadors is not prohibited.

Megan and Gray Milmine, parents of twins Thomas and Jack, say they are "very proud" their sons were chosen to front the campaign.

"Parents know why Weetabix is great for big days, but we need to find different ways of getting that message across to kids," says marketing director Sally Abbott.

'Spreadable as butter'

With young people readily at the forefront of the technology that is changing the ways we communicate with each other, so the ways that advertisers can target children are also constantly evolving.

Free, branded online games - known as "advergames" - are considered one of the fastest growing areas on the internet, and a whole new sub-section of the marketing industry has sprung up to produce them.

'It happens at an unconscious level'

Young girl on computer

"Advergames and all kinds of online marketing are now regulated by the same codes as TV advertising, but what the codes don't cover is the amount of time a child is exposed to an advert nor the type of messaging.

"There are lots of experiments that have shown that if you don't consciously notice a brand, but you're playing a game that you are having fun with, you make a positive association between the fun you are having and the brand - but you don't really realise that's happening.

"When you then go to the shop and you see this brand, you just somehow feel a strong affinity with this brand, but what you haven't done is you haven't thought about the fact that someone is trying to advertise something to you.

"Even kids of quite a young age, if they see a TV advert, they know it's an advert and they can be a little bit sceptical about it.

"With advergames and other kinds of immersive advertising, you don't have the opportunity to do that. It happens at an unconscious, implicit, automatic level."

Dr Agnes Nairn, co-author, Consumer Kids

The games are considered effective because they expose players to a brand for longer than a conventional advert - and longer still with repeat plays.

If registration details are required to play or record a score, that can mean valuable consumer data for the company.

And the games are easily emailed to friends, delivering viral marketing for businesses.

"As spreadable as butter on hot toast," is how one London-based digital marketing agency describes its advergames.

These games can be a particularly potent form of advertising, suggests Dr Agnes Nairn, a professor of marketing and co-author of the book Consumer Kids.

"Children from really quite a young age, certainly from even four or five, they can tell, 'That's an advert, that's a programme,' and as they get older they develop scepticism towards the advert," she says.

"With an advergame that's not the case because your primary focus is not on the advert, it's on the game.

"So you are having fun with the game, the brand's there in the background, you make an automatic association between having fun with the game and a positive view of the brand, and that sticks in your subconscious without any kind of sceptical awareness around it at all."

Advergames are being used by all kinds of companies and public bodies.

So, while a ban on junk food advertising on children's television was introduced in 2007, youngsters can now spend hours playing online games featuring many of the same brands.


While these word-of-mouth strategies are still minor in terms of advertising spend in comparison with traditional TV and print campaigns, the level of industry interest is disproportionately high, says Ms McEleny.

"People are quite keen to understand how they can use social media and word-of-mouth because of this opportunity that they see," she says.

"Before, you put your new ad around TV programmes and hoped children talked about it in the playground the next day. I don't think that works so effectively these days."

Marketing on social media allows easy analysis by companies of how their campaigns are being received, Ms McEleny says.

Start Quote

Steve Barton

If this fledgling industry gets undermined by people acting unethically, then it's not going to grow”

End Quote Steve Barton Global brand partner, Ogilvy One Worldwide

"Some online sites are the new playground," she adds. "That is the opportunity for marketers to get your customers to spread the word - it's not only because it's more trusted, it's cheaper."

Industry figures will admit that, right now, they have little idea of the extent of children's use in peer-to-peer marketing.

But in response to the Bailey Review, the advertising industry is conducting a kind of internal audit of the practices ahead of a meeting with government on these issues next month.

The industry insists that its system of self-regulation remains best suited to stay on top of changing methods, arguing that parliamentary legislation takes too long to keep pace with new techniques.

"Research shows that the more parents understand the rules and regulations governing advertising, the more reassured they feel," says an Advertising Association spokesman.

He adds: "The commercial world is a big part of what makes childhood enjoyable and fun but we must not forget that kids are still learning to understand it."

Steve Barton, global brand partner at Ogilvy One Worldwide, says that it is in the industry's interests to work responsibly in order to maintain credibility.

"If this fledgling industry, word-of-mouth marketing gets undermined by people acting unethically or unprofessionally, then it's not going to grow," he says.

"Secondly, a lot of us are parents, we have kids, our friends have kids, and we're not going to do inappropriate activity for those kids."

But overcoming many people's instinctive concerns about young people's involvement in marketing will not be easy.


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  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    Britain really needs to wake up and decide what kind of society it wants. Endless advertising, kids selling to kids.
    No wonder they all start rioting.

    All in the name of growing an ever economy.
    Get a grip.

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    @ 1.Lewis Fitzroy
    I totally agree with you comments.

    It is a disgrace that a "burger, fries and a toy" comes is a box designed and targeted for the child market.

    In my experience most of the food is wasted because all the child wants is to play with the toy... and a distraction from play if the toy is given before the meal is eaten.

    The soon discarded toy means RUBBISH & LANDFILL.

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    I'd like to know how children's clothes manufacturers would be able to sell their products without using children themselves as models ...

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    Most car makers are really clever with their advertising. We drivers buy for a host of reasons but we would all like to have the BEST we can afford.
    So the car manufacturers will state the basic model price and illustrate the top of the range version to make YOU trade up. This practise can make several £1000's difference to what YOU end up buying and tempting finance makes the extras affordable.

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    A child has no authority to make any lawful commercial agreement.
    It is their parents or legal guardians for financial reward who do.
    Use children to promote any product is EXPLOITATION.
    The practice should be banned.

    A brands named product is only as good as their last success.
    Any company can make a horrendous product and brand name quality can fall dramatically at times.

    Shop & buy sensibly.

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    The subconscious mind determines many conscious buying decisions and that's why repeated exposure to products and brands is why advertisers are willing to pay handsomely. That said if I can't stand CHEESE or am allergic to it then no advertising will persuade me to buy - UNLESS someone invents a cheese that tastes like dark chocolate mints.
    But then is that really CHEESE in the first place?

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    To answer the question posed by the article: No. The answer isn't just no, lock these people up.

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    Having worked for over 20 years in the cinema and outdoor advertising industry the way advertising has a subliminal effect is quite spooky and was banned in cinema advertising many years ago - where ONE single frame for say ice cream was inserted into the film run just before the interval and only the subconscious mind picked up the image but it had a very powerful effect on interval sales.

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    Children being recruited to SELL to other children? Well why not? The Victorians recuited children to labour in cotton mills, young children have been used for the sex trade....yes, go on, do it. HAVE NONE OF YOU PEOPLE EVER HEARD OF CHILD EXPLOITATION? Why is it that after years and years of legislation, changes in the law and more we still see a stupid question like this appear?

  • rate this

    Comment number 7.

    I think its fine - so long as the endorsement is honest and says "Weetabix are paying me to wear this T-Shirt"

  • rate this

    Comment number 6.

    The only reason why children and their parents get involved with this kind of advertising is money and fame. If a product is that good then it should stand on its own merits, if not then this insidious kind of marketing will not make their product any better.

  • rate this

    Comment number 5.

    Fact versus fiction - All advertising is designed to make YOU want to buy the product and it is true that any personal recommendation can greatly enhance the impact on a potential buyer but that's as far as it goes. YOU don't have to buy and you certainly don't have to like the product once YOU have bought it. Let's not get carried away by product endorsement even where children are involved.

  • rate this

    Comment number 4.

    Children get bullied at school for not wearing the right brand of trainer, how long will it be before they are bullied for not eating Weetabix. I used to think it was a good brand, not any longer.

  • rate this

    Comment number 3.

    Advertisers are forever pushing the boundary between persuasion and hoodwinking. If a celebrity promotes a brand, most consumers know their motive is a combination of personal endorsement of the product and payment by the sponsor. When the knowledge of payment is removed, because the consumer is naive (too young) or payment is hidden by the advertiser, then the tactic becomes unpalatable.

  • Comment number 2.

    All this user's posts have been removed.Why?

  • rate this

    Comment number 1.

    The nameless burger junk food company are the best at doing this world-wide .The adverttising standards Aurtority are just a toothless quango like many others, they should all be scraped saveing us taxpayers money to pay for new social programs.


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