BBC to survey UK mobile coverage


Technology correspondent Rory Cellan-Jones explains the ambitious BBC project which aims to map mobile coverage across the UK.

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The BBC is conducting a major survey into the state of mobile phone coverage in the UK.

Over the course of the next month, the project will attempt to chart the availability of 3G and 2G services up and down the country.

Mobile operators offer their own coverage maps but no independent survey has yet been carried out.

Measurements will be made using an app developed by network analysis firm Epitiro.

The software can be downloaded by anyone with an Android handset and will record street level coverage across Britain.

QR code for Android app Download via QR code

There is no iPhone app at present, because of the difficulty in making Apple devices collect such information in the background while other programmes are running.

At the end of the test period, the BBC aims to display the results on a clickable map.

"Coverage is the number one issue for consumers," said Gavin Johns, chief executive of Epitiro.


  • You will need an Android handset
  • Download the app below or from Android Marketplace
  • Once downloaded, data will be collected without you having to do anything more
  • If you wish to see what coverage is like in a particular place, simply click on the app
  • The app is free to download
  • It uses very little bandwidth
  • The data is anonymised and neither Epitiro nor the BBC will collate or store any personal data
Data hungry

According to Ofcom, there are over 12 million smartphones being used around the UK and a good service is crucial for the web browsing that more and more people demand from their handsets.

"Our coverage app will provide the information consumers need to see if 3G services are available and from which mobile operator. As mobile broadband is important to many of us, we hope people volunteer and make the project a success," said Mr Johns.

Most people have an anecdote about poor mobile coverage and it depends on a variety of factors including whether the user is indoors or out and what time of day they are using the network.

When a phone connects to high-speed 3G broadband services it will typically display a 3G or H symbol by the signal bars. The UK's average mobile download speed is 1.5Mbit/s. In areas of good 3G coverage, that figure rises to 2.1Mbit/s.

Alternative technologies include EDGE, which has a maximum speed of 0.3Mbit/s. Phones typically display an E symbol when using the system.

When consumers get a circle or 'o' symbol it is unlikely that broadband services will work satisfactorily, regardless of the number of signal strength bars.

Speed test on iPhone Switching from 2G to 3G can make a dramatic difference to data speed
Compare the market

Coverage is an issue that regulator Ofcom describes as a priority. It estimates that in terms of land mass, 91% of the UK has 2G coverage and 76% has 3G coverage.

It is conducting its own tests on UK mobile notspots - areas of low or no service. The research is due to be published later this year.

A consultant report, commissioned by Ofcom stated: "More information on coverage is required, and this should be in a standardised format enabling comparison between operator services such that users can make an informed decision about coverage in their area.

"Whilst postcode-based checkers go some way to this, their accuracy is limited to the point at which they have limited value."

O2's chief technology officer Nigel Purdy agrees that the current coverage checkers which rely on predictive modelling are not entirely accurate.

His company, along with other operators, conducts its own, more in-depth tests - including drive-bys - to see what coverage is like in a particular area and to plan where to place new base stations.

The challenge is "to get that data in a format for easy access for our customers," he said.

A similar project to map mobile signal strength globally has been carried out by opensignalmaps.

Building blocks

Operator 3 is calling for change in the way consumers are informed about coverage.

"There is no common standard for measuring coverage and some operators tend to grossly exaggerate. We like to manage people's expectations," said Phil Sheppard, 3's director of network strategy.


  • EDGE - stands for Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, a hybrid between 3G and 2G, offering speeds of around 0.3Mbit/s
  • 3G - covers a variety of technologies. Minimum speed should not be less than 300 Kbit/s
  • HSPDA - High Speed Packet Downlink Access is an upgrade of 3G offering up to 7.2Mbit/s
  • 4G - not currently available but services will roll out in 2013. Theoretical maximum of 1Gbit/s

One of the biggest challenges for 3, which owns high frequency 3G spectrum that is not great at penetrating buildings, is ensuring coverage when people use their phones indoors.

The problem will be solved, to an extent by gaining access to lower frequency spectrum that will be freed up by the digital switch-over.

Ian Fogg, an independent telecoms analyst, said that all operators struggle with indoor coverage.

"It is much easier to predict outdoor coverage. Indoors it will depend on the structure of the building. Thick concrete walls will block signals much more than a wooden structure," said Mr Fogg.

As homes become ever more energy-efficient, so the problem is exacerbated as highly insulated houses tend to block mobile signals.

Spectrum that will allow 4G services is not due to be released until at least 2012.

Meanwhile 3 is busy adding more base stations. It now has 12,653 sites around the UK. It site-shares with T-Mobile and will gain more locations following the T-Mobile and Orange merger.

But mobile masts bring their own challenges, according to Mr Purdy.

"Everyone craves good coverage but when we rock up to build a site near them it can cause problems," he said.

In urban centres, where more masts are needed at roof-top level, the challenge is finding a suitable rental price, he added.

Need for speed
Screen grab from mobile map Users can find out what coverage they get in any location around the UK

The BBC survey will not measure speeds, but this is becoming increasingly crucial as people use their handsets for downloading and web browsing.

Ofcom, in conjunction with Epitiro, recently carried out a national test.

In those speed tests, O2 and Vodafone came out on top, averaging between 2 and 3Mbit/s, compared to Orange which managed between 1Mbit/s and 1.5Mbit/s.

Broadband comparison website released its own 3G speed app this year and it found that Milton Keynes had the slowest 3G speeds at around 1.73Mbit/s compared to 3.6Mbit/s in Peterborough.

Mr Fogg thinks that, if enough people download the UK mobile map app, it could play a valuable role in helping improve coverage.

"One of the key solutions is identifying the problem. X network's may only be terrible in certain locations and this survey will provide better information for operators," he said.


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  • rate this

    Comment number 96.

    The signal strength is just one indication of whether you can expect good coverage or not. One of the problems with the current networks has been that when the move was made to 3G much re-use was made of existing cell sites. Cell handovers are therefore not always correct.

  • rate this

    Comment number 95.

    We did a test on the data performance of 3G versus TETRA a couple of years back. Over 60 miles per hour 3G data performance is very poor.

  • rate this

    Comment number 94.

    Mobile phones vary in their radio performance. An area giving good coverage for one type of handset may give poor coverage for another. In tests we carried out a couple of years ago, for example, the radio performance of the Apple iPhone was significantly worse than that provided by a Nokia model. For this to be a valid test, the same handset should be used. Also need to know if test indoors o

  • rate this

    Comment number 66.

    I have the 109 page Vodafone MetroDigital Home Area Coverage Atlas of Britain dated November 1994. It builds upon a relief atlas of the UK. I do not know why the Service Providers have not been able to do this since. I also do not understand why Offcom have not inssited that such information be made available so that consumers in the hilly areas of the UK can decide what is best for them.

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    To be honest I'm not really interested in web coverage or download speeds on mobile phones. I'd just like a good signal for normal use, you know, doing odd things like making a normal phone call.When the mobile companies get the basics right then I might, just might,start looking at mobile web use.


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