Ukraine crisis sends a chill into orbit

Soyuz capsule The latest Soyuz landing was a model of international co-operation

A Soyuz capsule returned to Earth on Wednesday with its international cosmonauts.

Russian Mikhail Tyurin, American Rick Mastracchio and Japan's Koichi Wakata had spent 188 days orbiting the planet on the International Space Station.

As is customary, the trio were lifted out of their craft and put in chairs. Thumbs-up and smiles all round. The picture of co-operation.

But the space programme is increasingly wearing a frown also, as the fallout from Russia’s annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea touches all aspects of international relations.

And not even 400km above the Earth, it seems, can you escape geopolitics.

For the moment, the orbiting platform continues to sail serenely around the globe at 27,000km/h, but on Earth things are a little bumpier.

A series of tit-for-tat gestures is raising tensions.

The US put restrictions on its federal officials meeting with their Russian counterparts, and banned some technology exports.

ISS The Russians and Americans depend on one another to operate the ISS

This could have had a major impact on the US space agency (Nasa) and its dealing with its Russian counterpart, Roscosmos, but the White House said matters relating to the space station were exempt, and that’s where most co-operative activity between the pair takes place.

Now, the Russians have hit back by saying they will stop the export of rocket engines to the US if they're to be used to launch American military hardware – something they routinely do when attached to the first-stage of the Atlas rocket.

Several of these vehicles a year will loft spacecraft for the US Air Force or the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO).

Russia is also threatening to shut down monitoring stations on its soil that support services based on American Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, although Moscow says this is more directly a response to Washington's refusal to allow stations to be built on US soil to support Glonass, the Russians' own sat-nav network.

There's talk, too, of Russia perhaps not agreeing to extend space station operations beyond 2020 – something the rest of the international partners on the project would like to do.

Stirring the pot is Russia’s deputy Prime Minister, Dmitry Rogozin, who is in charge of space and defence industries.

Atlas rocket US Atlas rockets currently use a dual-nozzle, Russian-built RD-180 engine to get off the pad

And he really likes to stir. Follow his Twitter feed and you'll see what I mean.

When the US introduced its technology sanctions, he wrote: "After analysing the sanctions against our space industry I suggest the US delivers its astronauts to the ISS with a trampoline. US Lets Down Its ISS Astronauts By Sanctions Against Russian Space Programme." He even posted a picture of trampoline with a Nasa badge.

It's a joke playing on the fact that the US must now buy seats in Russian Soyuz capsules if it wants to get its astronauts to the space station. After the retirement of the shuttles in 2011, there is currently no home-grown alternative.

A lot of this is huff and puff, of course. But the Russians need to be careful.

They are currently earning a tidy sum out of the Americans. The export of RD-180 rocket engines for the Atlas vehicles is worth hundreds of millions of dollars a year to the Russian space industry. And every one of those Soyuz seats to the ISS is bought for a ticket price that exceeds $60m.

Sabre rattling risks these profitable endeavours.

Already, there are noises in the US Congress that money should be made available to American industry to help design and build an indigenous Atlas first-stage engine.

And circling is Elon Musk of California’s upstart SpaceX company, which wants to sweep all before it by substituting both the Atlas and the Soyuz with the highly competitive Falcon rocket. All Musk's technology is US-built and a lot cheaper to boot.

The Russians therefore have much to lose, financially. But perhaps the saddest aspect of all this is that space endeavour should be touched at all.

It was of course in orbit that the US and the Soviet Union first defrosted relations with the Apollo-Soyuz docking in 1975. That co-operation was then built on with the highly successful Shuttle-Mir programme, which saw the American orbiters visit the old Russian space station throughout the 1990s.

And today we have the ISS - a shining star for international unity, with astronauts and cosmonauts of many nationalities – not just American and Russian - working very effectively side by side.

That's not something anyone should want to sully.

Jonathan Amos Article written by Jonathan Amos Jonathan Amos Science correspondent

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  • rate this

    Comment number 119.

    I am no fan or Pro-Russian but we in the west during the reunification of Europe and at the end of the cold war, had the opportunity to prevent the current events in eastern Europe by simply doing what we promised, which was to support Russian interests during the immediate post USSR period. We did not do this instead we declared victory put a MacDonald's in Moscow and did nothing discuss please?

  • rate this

    Comment number 118.

    #117 The Realist
    "Isn't Skylon supposed to cost £12bn and then deliver much cheaper than Space X running costs?"

    That's because Skylon is a technological leap ahead of current rocketry. Single stage and reusable. (think cars vs horse and cart)

    Nuclear rockets are a further leap again, bigger payloads, bigger safety margins, still single stage & reusable, - - much cheaper long term.

  • rate this

    Comment number 117.

    Isn't Skylon supposed to cost £12bn and then deliver much cheaper than Space X running costs?

    Europe should be funding that ASAP to have it's own capabilities.

  • rate this

    Comment number 116.

    European Space Agency should start to be able to provide an alternative as Russia is no longer a reliable or 'normal' partner for anything really. The EU and US have got used to living on a nice civilised street after the Cold War gentrification. Now it's like a skinheads with Doberman dogs have moved next door. We can't move so need to install extra security. Good job we are building new carriers

  • rate this

    Comment number 115.

    The ISS has been a massive politically correct waste of time and money. Mankind does not innovate without competition. You can see that in how pedestrian space exploration became between the end of the Cold War and the start of commercial contracts. If Russia stops cooperating with the ISS and starts doing its own thing again it could be the best thing that happened to space science in 40 years.

  • rate this

    Comment number 114.

    So, Ukraine crisis sends a chill into orbit. Does that mean there is a nip in the air?

  • rate this

    Comment number 113.

    110. Tony of Britain
    "As I understand it there are quite a few Russian probes and "rovers" on and around planets.."
    You understand incorrectly. Perhaps too much Russian propaganda?

  • rate this

    Comment number 112.

    Putin is more trouble than he is worth, the sooner we are rid the better.

  • rate this

    Comment number 111.

    Just shows that great things are possible when we work together, instead of fighting each other all the time and worrying about silly things such as immigrants and border controls and rampant nationalism. Nationalism has never done anyone any favours - it has only caused wars.

  • rate this

    Comment number 110.

    @104. Atomic_Mash

    Not sure what point you are trying to make, but as I understand it, there are quite a few Russian probes and "rovers" on and around planets. The Russians still have more space firsts then the US. You need to realise that the US is not the only country to be exploring space. The UK has a fair amount of stuff going on, the EU has as well, and even India has a planetary mission.

  • rate this

    Comment number 109.

    The complexities of a globalised world, disputes between nations causes difficulties no one could have forseen not long ago. Its hard nowadays to become angry with others when you have your hands in each other's pockets to the extent the world does now. Perhaps they can sit on opposite sides of the ISS or in their rockets. But the Russians do love/need the money they get from the US for launches.

  • rate this

    Comment number 108.

    The Russians therefore have much to lose, financially. Really? They have much to lose if they try to put sanctions on West. And they have much to lose if West puts sanctions on them. So it is a lose-lose situation for them. Then why is it that it is EU and NATO that looks so defensive instead of Russians? May be they have done their financial homework much better than EU or US.

  • rate this

    Comment number 107.

    #99 Alex
    "... I wonder if the Europeans could win independence in space by building Skylon. Independence from Russian gas will be harder, but again.."

    The UK could afford skylon but unfortunately others go to space, we are going to Birmingham (slightly faster).
    As for energy all we have to do is follow the French - they have near total energy security + the lowest carbon emissions in Europe.

  • rate this

    Comment number 106.

    10. "it's time all space exploration was scrapped and money put into tackling poverty instead."

    Oh not this again, the money spent on Space exploration is a tiny fraction of the amount spent of wlefare, health and overseas aid already, the extra money would make no difference. Plus satellites already help the poor by providing disaster monitoring and communications in rural areas.

  • rate this

    Comment number 105.

    How sad humanity can be, and how bound we will be to our planet for centuries to come because of attitudes like this.

  • rate this

    Comment number 104.

    @89Tony of Britain
    Hey Tony, how many Russian rovers are roving around Mars these days? How many Russian spaceships have exited the solar system or are circling Venus, Jupiter and Saturn?

    94 Vladimir Plouzhnikov. The US is getting what they want - the second Cold War.
    Did the US place 40K troops to the Bering straight, send in their special forces and annex a piece of Siberia?

  • rate this

    Comment number 103.

    This issue was starting to rear its ugly head when the Russian cosmonauts were left out of the recent Channel 4 coverage of the ISS.

    Since then I've been wondering when this issue was going to become a more explicit political football.

    Humans amaze by their ingenuity but bewilder with their utter stupidity.

  • rate this

    Comment number 102.

    10. Balloon Rake
    Space exploration is a waste of money and is scientists clinging on to their childhood dreams that their is life on other planets/holograms, it's time all space exploration was scrapped and money put into tackling poverty instead.

    The only sustainable way to tackle poverty is innovation.
    Playing with interest rates, tax bands, benefits will not work if we stop innovating.

  • rate this

    Comment number 101.


    Untold billions?

    NASA's year on year budget is about $17bn. That's about the cost of the Olympics.

    Their military budget, is in excess of $700bn. Simply taxing religious groups would generate $71bn, and that's before you start attacking corporation tax breaks.

    You want to talk about wasted billions?

  • rate this

    Comment number 100.


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