World's first lab-grown burger is eaten in London


Food critics give their verdict on the burger's taste and texture

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The world's first lab-grown burger has been cooked and eaten at a news conference in London.

Scientists took cells from a cow and, at an institute in the Netherlands, turned them into strips of muscle that they combined to make a patty.

One food expert said it was "close to meat, but not that juicy" and another said it tasted like a real burger.

Researchers say the technology could be a sustainable way of meeting what they say is a growing demand for meat.

The burger was cooked by chef Richard McGeown, from Cornwall, and tasted by food critics Hanni Ruetzler and Josh Schonwald.


The world's population is continuing to increase and an ever greater proportion want to eat meat. To meet that demand farmers will need to use more energy, water and land - and the consequent increase in greenhouse gas emission will be substantial.

The plan for lab-grown burgers has won support from some animal welfare and vegetarian groups, who feel it addresses their concerns about animal suffering.

But critics say technological fixes, whether it is lab-grown meat or GM crops address the symptoms rather than the causes of world hunger. What is needed, they say, are policies that enable more farmers to produce more food more efficiently and to distribute it more equitably.

And then of course there is the taste. Even those behind the stem cell project agree that the meat grown will never taste as good as that from an animal. But as prices rise, environmental pressures grow and concerns over animal welfare increase, they argue their approach is the only ethical and pragmatic way forward.

Upon tasting the burger, Austrian food researcher Ms Ruetzler said: "I was expecting the texture to be more soft... there is quite some intense taste; it's close to meat, but it's not that juicy. The consistency is perfect, but I miss salt and pepper.

"This is meat to me. It's not falling apart."

Food writer Mr Schonwald said: "The mouthfeel is like meat. I miss the fat, there's a leanness to it, but the general bite feels like a hamburger.

"What was consistently different was flavour."

Prof Mark Post, of Maastricht University, the scientist behind the burger, remarked: "It's a very good start."

The professor said the meat was made up of tens of billions of lab-grown cells. Asked when lab-grown burgers would reach the market, he said: "I think it will take a while. This is just to show we can do it."

Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google, has been revealed as the project's mystery backer. He funded the £215,000 ($330,000) research.

Prof Tara Garnett, head of the Food Policy Research Network at Oxford University, said decision-makers needed to look beyond technological solutions.

"We have a situation where 1.4 billion people in the world are overweight and obese, and at the same time one billion people worldwide go to bed hungry," she said.

Prof Mark Post, of Maastricht University, explains how he and his colleagues made the world's first lab-grown burger

"That's just weird and unacceptable. The solutions don't just lie with producing more food but changing the systems of supply and access and affordability, so not just more food but better food gets to the people who need it."

Stem cells are the body's "master cells", the templates from which specialised tissue such as nerve or skin cells develop.

Most institutes working in this area are trying to grow human tissue for transplantation to replace worn-out or diseased muscle, nerve cells or cartilage.

Josh Schonwald Mr Schonwald said he missed the fat, but that the "general bite" was authentic

Prof Post is using similar techniques to grow muscle and fat for food.

He starts with stem cells extracted from cow muscle tissue. In the laboratory, these are cultured with nutrients and growth-promoting chemicals to help them develop and multiply. Three weeks later, there are more than a million stem cells, which are put into smaller dishes where they coalesce into small strips of muscle about a centimetre long and a few millimetres thick.

These strips are collected into small pellets, which are frozen. When there are enough, they are defrosted and compacted into a patty just before being cooked.

Because the meat is initially white in colour, Helen Breewood - who works with Prof Post - is trying to make the lab-grown muscle look red by adding the naturally-occurring compound myoglobin.

Comparing the environmental impact of conventional and laboratory beef production An independent study found that lab-grown beef uses 45% less energy than the average global representative figure for farming cattle. It also produces 96% fewer greenhouse gas emissions and requires 99% less land.

"If it doesn't look like normal meat, if it doesn't taste like normal meat, it's not... going to be a viable replacement," she said.

She added: "A lot of people consider lab-grown meat repulsive at first. But if they consider what goes into producing normal meat in a slaughterhouse, I think they would also find that repulsive."

How would lab-grown meat go down? The BBC's Pallab Ghosh asked the clientele of Duggie's Dogs hot dog restaurant in Vancouver

Currently, this is a work in progress. The burger revealed on Monday was coloured red with beetroot juice. The researchers have also added breadcrumbs, caramel and saffron, which were intended to add to the taste, although Ms Ruetzler said she could not taste these.

At the moment, scientists can only make small pieces of meat; larger ones would require artificial circulatory systems to distribute nutrients and oxygen.

In a statement, animal welfare campaigners People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (Peta) said: "[Lab-grown meat] will spell the end of lorries full of cows and chickens, abattoirs and factory farming. It will reduce carbon emissions, conserve water and make the food supply safer."

Critics of the technology say that eating less meat would be an easier way to tackle predicted food shortages.

The latest United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization report on the future of agriculture indicates that most of the predicted growth in demand for meat from China and Brazil has already happened and many Indians are wedded to their largely vegetarian diets for cultural and culinary reasons.


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  • rate this

    Comment number 152.

    I suppose using cattle stem cells is one way to make sure no horsemeat ends up in the burgers...

  • rate this

    Comment number 151.

    BSE (mad cow disease) was caused by a single rouge protein in beef with a 10 year incubation period in humans who ate that meat.

    Good luck to those eating this so called 'meat' today!

  • rate this

    Comment number 150.

    So many narrow minded people who do not realize that is only the first step in what could lead to fully sustainable food for everyone.
    Even the scientist in charge has said we are a long way from making this mass producable. With pop growing, green land being sold to make more houses etc. We simply do not have the ability to sustain the worlds pop moving forwards. Or would you prefer genocide?

  • rate this

    Comment number 149.

    Disgusting on a number of levels!

    I certainly won't be feeding this to my family, as we all know fresh meat, vegetables and fruit are the best things to eat, but if I had to I suppose I would if choice no longer existed!

  • rate this

    Comment number 148.

    If we are going to continue growing human population without obliterating other life on the planet this type of technology is essential.

  • rate this

    Comment number 147.

    Just disgusting. Makes me want to become a vegetarian.

  • rate this

    Comment number 146.

    Anybody ridiculing this needs to look at the big picture. Children and families starve the world over. Human populations continue to expand with land use becoming ever more strained.
    Anyone judging Scientists for this are off their heads. What about the fact this group has made specialised cells...
    It is so typically human to stigmatise anything they don't understand. Shame on you!

  • rate this

    Comment number 145.

    Any new technology has lots of scared uninformed people telling us it can never work. When it works they say the technology cannot be viable. Unless you are an expert in the field how can you know either way? To those disgusted at the thought of eating something grown in a lab compare this with eating an animal. There are many benefits to this technology (famine, space exploration etc)

  • rate this

    Comment number 144.

    I am interested to understand exactly WHY some people find this repulsive. Is it just irrational prejudice? After all, food technology is almost inevitably part of many things we eat, from preservatives to colourants, additives, flavourants, etc. It all comes out of a lab. Are recently developed lab-grown body parts that are used in transplants also repulsive?

  • rate this

    Comment number 143.

    It's a good day for science, for the world and for the human race. There can be no denying that we need new methods of food production and quicker than many people might think. Meat without murder....who'd have thought it possible?

  • rate this

    Comment number 142.

    To taste supermarket authentic, the burger needs simulated horse

  • rate this

    Comment number 141.

    This has got to be the most promising way of ending food shortages in development. All the grain and land currently devoted to livestock can go towards human consumption and we can still have our meat.

    And to all those saying it's disgusting:
    I'd happily take a burger manufactured in clinical, laboratory environments over one made from mashed up meat leftovers from a dirty abattoir.

  • rate this

    Comment number 140.

    I'm not a vegetarian but would rather become one than eat this plastic concoction of man-made chemicals.

    We should concentrate our efforts on avoiding the grotesque waste of food that is currently the case these days.

  • rate this

    Comment number 139.

    @106 Praise Him

    Fair point, but we've never been told with how to deal with the mass breeding and slaughter of millions of animals worldwide to feed a certain percentage of the population, whilst the rest of the world starves. I'm not sure any person, religious of otherwise, would wish for that. As someone else has pointed out already, once this becomes the 'norm,' there won't be an issue.

  • rate this

    Comment number 138.

    Ever seen Soylent Green ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 137.

    This is so wrong...we should grow fruit and veg...not meat.

    I love my meat...but would never eat this stuff.

    Another example of scientist's playing god by replicating animal tissue...why ?

    Because they can.

    Who would seriously by this stuff ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 136.

    Perhaps in the future we can stop FARMING animals. I'd like that.

    Cost of production goes down & yield goes up.
    Ethics become a thing of the past.

    I bet the animal lib types are FURIOUS - they won't have anything to complain about any more!

    Still we can always do this:


  • rate this

    Comment number 135.

    Big business greed, shoddy farming practices, political inertia and ineptitude has created food-shortages, now everyone is hailing another budding big business as the solution to the first clusterfudge. The only meat on this page is the sheeple who walk blindly and open-armed into this sort of stupidity. I'll go vegetarian before I eat this muck.

  • rate this

    Comment number 134.

    Well at least they have told us what they are up to.
    Now it cant be leaked to the world by someone on the run.
    Soon there will be no need for us,they can feed lab grown meat!?! to lab grown humans!?!
    Bon Appetit

  • rate this

    Comment number 133.

    Too me the major benefits of this technology would be to prevent the destruction of the worlds natural ecosystems more than the suffering of farm animals bred for that purpose. Vast swathes of the amazon and other habitats has been removed to provide pasture land for meat consumption, anything that can prevent further destruction is a worthwhile science to pursue


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