Scratching the surface of the Moon

Harrison "Jack" Schmitt on the Moon Schmitt says the astronauts who went to South Pole Aitken Basin would need significant mobility

We're in the midst of Apollo nostalgia. It's now 40 years since the final mission, Apollo 17, went to the Moon.

Eugene Cernan, Ron Evans and Harrison "Jack" Schmitt were the last crew to visit Earth's satellite, with Cernan and Schmitt becoming the 11th and 12th humans to step on to its surface.

And then, as a species, we retreated.

Attending the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting these past few days has reminded me just how significant the Moon remains in terms of its science.

President Obama rejected it as a potential destination for future exploration ("We've been there before") in preference for asteroids.

But if you look at what we've learnt in recent years from the fleet of orbiters sent to circle the body, it just underlines that we've really only just scratched the surface.

Harrison "Jack" Schmitt in 2012 ... and on Earth in 2012

The release of the new Grail gravity data set has probably been the stand-out moment of this AGU meeting, which brings together the world's leading Earth and planetary researchers.

It's not every day that information is placed before the scientific community that is truly transformative but the gravity maps may well fall into this class.

There's been quite a bit of talk of having to rewrite the textbooks.

The data has certainly impressed Schmitt, who continues to take a very close interest in lunar geology. Remember, he was the sole Apollo astronaut to fly as a scientist, not as a test pilot.

He's been back at AGU this week and his fascination with the Moon remains undimmed. He still thinks it's an important place for astronauts to visit.

"No question about it," he told me. "Whether you think about the science of the Moon or the resources of the Moon, or its relationship to accelerating our progress on to Mars.

Harrison Schmitt: "The science of the Moon has just been scratched"

"I'm not a big fan of asteroids [as a destination]. I think we have most of the science from meteorites, and asteroids are going to be very difficult to work around because of the very low gravity field.

"We would figure out how to do it, but I think to put together a programme to visit an asteroid when the ultimate aim is to get to Mars, and you have a satellite only three days away that has a great deal of science to offer as well as resources to offer, I think an asteroid is a diversion."

So, assuming the capability and budget existed, where on the Moon would he want to put boots?

Quick as a flash, he came back: "I'd go to South Pole Aitken Basin with significant mobility."

South Pole Aitken The South Pole Aitken Basin

South Pole Aitken, or SPA, is the Moon's biggest and oldest impact feature, and is found on the far side.

It's some 2,500km across and reaches deep into the crust. SPA is suspected to have been created during a great bombardment of the inner Solar System by rocky debris that was disturbed and thrown our way when the giant planets underwent an adjustment in their orbits. That's one idea, anyway.

Scientists would dearly like to tie down the timing of this cataclysm, and getting rocks from SPA is the way to do that.

It would also probably tell us something about ourselves, says Brad Jolliff, a lunar expert from Washington University, St Louis.

"The earliest life on Earth looks to be around the time of 3.8bn years ago. That's about the time this cataclysm stopped.

Brad Jolliff: "It's like a continent on Earth - a whole separate terrain"

"The earlier period on Earth is really largely gone. This is called the Hadean Eon. From that time, the oldest materials we have are tiny crystals, bits of the mineral zircon.

"It's a resistant mineral so the rock can be melted and eroded, and all we have left are these zircons. So we can see [something of] that earlier time. But we don't really have any rocks from that time. So having the lunar samples, which nearly all come from that time period, gives us a snapshot that we can't see on Earth."

Putting astronauts down on the far side to do field work is obviously the dream. A more realistic near-term scenario is a venture that returns SPA rocks to Earth robotically, something Jolliff has long advocated.

"I would absolutely love to see astronauts there, and it will happen someday. We'll have astronauts in various places on the Moon. But in the foreseeable future it's just not in the realm of the fiscal reality that we're faced with."

Grail's view of the Moon's gravity field Grail's Moon view: Reds correspond to mass excesses which create areas of higher local gravity, and blues correspond to mass deficits which create areas of lower local gravity.
Jonathan Amos Article written by Jonathan Amos Jonathan Amos Science correspondent

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  • rate this

    Comment number 168.

    One major floor in your rant is we have proof we went to the moon they left reflectors on it which are today used to measure exactly how far the moon is from the earth. Only way to get them to the moon and set up exactly right was to go there and set them up.
    look up Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation

  • rate this

    Comment number 167.

    165.Iron dome
    religion or to be more precise Christian religions have done more to stop mankind's advancement than has ever been done to help it. And all because a man made book said so. you could and would be murdered by the church not that long ago if you said the earth went round the sun or that the earth was more than a 4000 years old science for hundreds of years was persecuted by the church

  • rate this

    Comment number 166.

    typo. moody.

  • rate this

    Comment number 165.

    77. "If it wasnt for religion...mankind would have colonised the moon and mars by now"

    Eh?! Can you err clarify. Because your statement appears absurd. Maybe you just meant to sound all mood and agnostic. Always plays well to some, even if drivel.

  • rate this

    Comment number 164.

    3. Disestablishmentarian
    [...] Would anyone believe the wright brothers if flight was never repeated? Would you believe lindburg [sic] flew the ocean if no one else ever did again? [...]

    They did repeat the moon landings. Five times. The fact that the most recent trip was 40 years ago is irrelevant.

  • rate this

    Comment number 163.

    PBS Nova science shows have highlighted developing new method of faster propulsion in space, problems to overcome with journey to Mars, and development of freeze dried foods that would last the entire journey & still be tasty.

    So the problem solving goes on at NASA even though underfunded.

  • rate this

    Comment number 162.

    Giovanna I think perhaps your understanding of the amount of pollutants and 'junk' left behind may be slightly misconscrued, maybe a complaint will be needed when the smog and hundreds of moon buggies become an eye sore. Also some of the discoveries from landing on the moon have helped mankind understand the solar system a great deal more. An understanding I think lost on yourself.

  • rate this

    Comment number 161.

    @Disestablishmentarian Not repeated? They landed six times.

  • rate this

    Comment number 160.

    Anybody who says we didn't go is an idiot.

    Pure & simple

  • rate this

    Comment number 159.

    156. KJ "It would also silence all the idiots who think he never went in the first place"

    Oh they went and that is the problem. They went, polluted a pristine environment, and came back leaving their junk behind. All so the Americans could say 'look how clever we are' to the Russians. How sad and juvenile. They should be ashamed of themselves but they are proud, as are those who think it clever.

  • Comment number 158.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.

  • rate this

    Comment number 157.

    154. Drunken Hobo "You'd be protected from any solar flares, have an abundant supply of water and permanent sunlight at the rim of the crater for power & crops."

    Crops? With no atmosphere? Grown in a bubble perhaps - where does all the air come from to keep it viable? What would be the purpose of such a venture? Are we inventing atmosphere processors as in Aliens? Oh dear, back to Star Trekking.

  • rate this

    Comment number 156.

    Maybe astronauts should revisit the Apollo 11 landing site. They can take a memorial with them to honour Neil Armstrong with them.

    It would also silence all the idiots who think he never went in the first place.

  • rate this

    Comment number 155.

    It cost a couple of billion to put a robot on mars to poke around a bit. Assume we could build a robot that could mine an asteroid (not with current technology). Assume we gave it a spacecraft to send the goodies back (all by itself). That would cost at least ten billion. How much is one space ship full of the goodies that it mines worth? It is not cost effective unless the asteroid is all gold.

  • rate this

    Comment number 154.

    143 brummie123
    "anything we do on the moon has a huge risk from sun flares so keeping a permanent base there is tricky."

    Any future base will likely be situated in a permanently shaded crater at the South Pole of the Moon. You'd be protected from any solar flares, have an abundant supply of water and permanent sunlight at the rim of the crater for power & crops.

  • rate this

    Comment number 153.

    @136. a_responsibility_to_awe
    "NASA hasn't got the money to reinvent the technology and neither have the other space powers."

    You cannot un-invent something therefore there is no need to reinvent it.
    But unlike then we have computer modelling and much more sophisticated materials and technology. It would be comparatively easy to go to the moon again if all you wanted to do was repeat Apollo

  • rate this

    Comment number 152.

    It took a Saturn V to launch three people towards the moon. Imagine the rocket needed to launch a dozen people, their equipment, and a section of moonbase, then multiply that by the few hundred needed to complete the task, Such an enterprise would bankrupt the entire world.
    Building the base at the space station doesn't help - still have to launch all the stuff in the first place. Think about it.

  • rate this

    Comment number 151.

    A trip to the moon and back takes a few days in a tin can and Apollo 13 showed how fragile the oxygen supply was.
    A trip to mars and back takes a few years in a tin can. The astronauts will breathe what? They will eat and drink what? An entire Tesco store on board would not last the trip, not that it could ever be launched.
    Stop watching Star Trek and actually think about the scale of the problem.

  • rate this

    Comment number 150.

    I don't see any reason to go there, focus on Mars and beyond.

  • rate this

    Comment number 149.

    99. bangers64

    Ah but the pen can also be used on earth to write upside down. With pencil easy to change what is written-not so easy with pen.

    107. Richard robots may miss something important. Full Earth picture came about because Moon Mission commander overrode scientists wanting to only take pictures of the moon to take some shots of earth or else!


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