Juno Jupiter probe gets British boost

Artist's impression of Juno firing its Leros engine The two burns on the Juno spacecraft's main engine last about 30 minutes each

Nasa's Juno spacecraft will execute the second of two big burns on its main engine on Tuesday.

The manoeuvre will put the probe on a path to flyby Earth in October next year. This sweep around the home planet will then give the mission a gravitational boost and the velocity required to get it out to Jupiter in July 2016.

What you might not know is that this critical event depends on British-designed and -built hardware.

Juno is equipped with a Leros-1b apogee engine prepared by Moog-ISP of Westcott.

Westcott has a rich history. It was at the old Buckinghamshire RAF base after WWII where the government established its guided weapons programme, producing solid motors and liquid engines.

Today, this quiet corner of England is developing propulsion systems for important spacecraft like Juno.

The Jupiter probe's Leros-1b was originally designed to put telecommunications satellites in the right part of the sky.

When these platforms are dropped off by their launch rockets they are in a large ellipse around the Earth running from just a few hundred km above the planet out to 36,000km.

An apogee engine makes a series of burns at the top of the ellipse to circularise that orbit and bring the satellite into a "stationary" parking position where it can then relay its TV pictures, phone traffic, broadband, etc to a particular region, 24/7.

The major American manufacturer Lockheed Martin was the first to use the high thrusting (635 newtons) Leros-1b on its telecoms platforms, but the engine has also found favour at the US space agency down the years.

The Mars Global Surveyor, which mapped the Red Planet from the late 90s, and the Near-Shoemaker probe, which visited an Asteroid Eros in 2003, both carried the Westcott technology.

Of those Nasa missions in action today, the Messenger venture at Mercury has a special reason to thank its Leros hardware.

"Messenger was particularly nice for us because it was the first time that any artificial satellite had gone into Mercury orbit," explained Dr Ian Coxhill, the chief engineer at Moog-ISP

"It was a proud day for us to know that our engine actually did the insertion burn to drop the spacecraft into the correct orbit.

"The engine braked the orbital speed. It was a delta-v opposite to the direction of travel and that slowed Messenger enough so the relatively weak gravity of Mercury could capture the spacecraft and put it into an elliptical orbit around the planet rather than the Sun."

The Leros-1b on Juno will be required to do something similar in July 2016 when the mission arrives at Jupiter. But first it must put the probe on the right path to the Gas Giant.

Leros-1c The Leros-1c engine will be used on the next generation of GPS satellites

Juno was launched in August last. It has since travelled some 480 million km from Earth, beyond the orbit of Mars.

Two 30-minute burns of the hydrazine-fuelled Westcott engine - the first was conducted last Friday - will bring the spacecraft back towards the home planet for a classic gravitational slingshot out to Jupiter.

"We're pretty much hands off at this stage," Dr Coxhill says.

"Nasa's mission control is running things. If they see something they don't like - such as temperature readings that are too high - they might give us a call.

"We always like to get some feedback, which is not always possible because of security restrictions, and we understand that. But we put blood, sweat and tears into making our engines and just hearing there was a 'nominal burn' gives us a warm feeling."

Moog-ISP now produces a 1c derivative of the Leros as well. This is trimmed for slightly less thrust (450N). It was fitted to the Boeing-built Intelsat-21 and -22 telecommunications spacecraft that were launched in August and March of this year.

You will see the 1c on the next generation of the US DoD's Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, also - GPS-III.

"We're an export business. We're a UK company that makes most of our money selling into the US," emphasises Dr Coxhill.

Jupiter Juno mission
Jonathan Amos Article written by Jonathan Amos Jonathan Amos Science correspondent

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  • rate this

    Comment number 33.

    #31, 23, etc..
    There is still so much in space science to be done.
    These engines are very impressive but they represent one of the fundamental limits of thermal rockets, as an engine gets more efficient its fuel stream gets faster and hotter and it very rapidly hits the limits of materials that can handle that heat and stress. One of the big issues for the future is going beyond that limit..

  • rate this

    Comment number 32.

    Good that the UK can still compete on a small scale in Engineering. Just a shame that Engineering is still a dirty word in the world of Academia. Ah well - back to the shed and some PVC and KNO3

  • rate this

    Comment number 31.


    clicking on the link to NASA and looking at all the current missions exploring the solar system and looking into deep space shows just how much we are learning right now.

    Just a terrible shame Britain is not doing enough, we can build engines and satellites as good as any but we need to do so much more.

    £5 billion a year would gie us a space program and a legacy to be proud of

  • rate this

    Comment number 30.

    I suppose these acomplishments are important, even historical. I appreciate the study and sweat that went into the various achievements...
    I just wish that we earthlings were as interested in earth as we are in Mars, Jupiter, the Moon...Could be psychological escapism.
    Also, what's this I read about the Nasa/Pentagon marriage. Seems like a killer wedding to me.

  • rate this

    Comment number 29.

    28 empiredown - Don't think these engines are anywhere near powerful enough to launch a vehicle. There however is the Sabre hybrid jet/rocket in development in the UK, which is very interesting and innovative technology.
    Now if only the government gives it some funding, we could have a proper space industry, but I think I hear a banker asking for a new Porsche 911…

  • rate this

    Comment number 28.

    I guess if they attached one of these to a large cylinder of gas we'd have our own launch vehicles. Might be a good idea with global instability, climate change and food riots on the horizon? A profitable good idea but is that the British way?

  • rate this

    Comment number 27.

    4th September 2012 - 19:54

    Thank you for your carefully considered and erudite comment.

  • rate this

    Comment number 26.

    11.ScottNYC - The first man on the moon may have been an American but it was the Germans who got him there and by the way the British GAVE the jet engine to the Americans

  • rate this

    Comment number 25.

    You've obviously never taken a look at all the scientific, technological and medical applications, inventions and machines that have come out of a country 38 times smaller than the states. We've done more than our fair share in helping the world over the years.

  • rate this

    Comment number 24.

    So many just want to moan and unfortunately many are the people who get heard

    Somehow we need science to be reported the same way the Olympics are being reported, full of enthusiasm and portraying a can-do attitude that inspires people to invest and support the hard work.

    Science can provide us with a wonderful future, but we need to back it and invest in it.

  • rate this

    Comment number 23.

    I do agree with earlier comments about the apparent unwillingness of our politicians to invest more into the scientific life of the nation, rather than simply hosting foreign ventures. Still, looked at on a more global scale, the mainland would fit into one tiny corner of any US state so our resources are much more limited. What is our contribution? The world commercial language for one. English.

  • rate this

    Comment number 22.

    Wouldn't you just know it! The burn has been delayed by 10 days to allow for some out of line propellant pressures to be assessed. http://1.usa.gov/ShV3S2

  • rate this

    Comment number 21.

    This is not justa one -off engine for a one-off mission.
    Moog-ISP are producing these engines on a regular basis for a wide range of commercial and scientific satellites. Many of them are American.
    This is a significant and sustained penetration of a US market notorious for its reluctance to accept anything "not invented here".

  • rate this

    Comment number 20.

    "11. ScottNYC - Leave it to the Brits to make a big deal out of nothing... Not surprising from a country that makes nothing and contributes nothing to the world economy except corrupt bankers."

    I know I shouldn't feed the troll, but the UK is the 6th largest manufacturing exporter by value. We do contribute quite a lot to the word economy, mostly technology.

    Shame about the corrupt bankers.

  • rate this

    Comment number 19.

    Of course it has a British engine.. If we buy anything from America, eg aircraft, we rip out their engines and install our own. They don't seem able to make engines, their cars mysteriously are unable to generate any decent bhp. A 5 litre US car produces about the same as a European 2 litre turbo.

  • rate this

    Comment number 18.

    11. ScottNYC

    Not surprising from a country that makes nothing and contributes nothing to the world economy except corrupt bankers.

    Strange post. Two things: 1) You are posting on the BBC website, a broadcasting organisation that puts the puts to shame anything you have in the States, and 2) You are using a computer, just where do you think that was invented?

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.

    "... a country that makes nothing and contributes nothing to the world economy except corrupt bankers"

    Unlike the US who contribute corrupt bankers and plagerise (look it up if you don't know big words) everything from the rest of the world then sues them for copyright or patent infringement (like those peach-colored plastic cases for example) for $1bn

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    Why does it surprise people that countries cooperate on big endeavors? Maybe the political front says 'Ooh yes this is a triumph for [insert patriotic country here]'s engineering', but under the hood engineering and scientific projects are a collaboration from many nationalities, all talking in SI units.
    CERN, the ISS and Linux to name a few.

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    I stood on Cocoa Beach and watched the rocket launch with my family as it set off on its very long journey. Regardless of the negative and childish comments below, I am always overwhelmed by these enourmous achievements. Absolutely insipring, and knowing that there's a small corner of Britain contributing is fantastic! I want one!!!!

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    @ScottNYC. a country that "makes nothing and contributes nothing" made the site you are looking at. Perhaps try a US news site if you fewl so strongly


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