X-37B spaceplane 'spying on China'


X-37B - American military spaceplane

  • Mission: Described as a re-usable testbed for new sensors and other space technologies
  • Length: 9m (29ft); Wingspan: 4.5m (14ft); Height: 3m (9.5ft); Mass: 5t (11,000lb)
  • Origins: Started as a Nasa project in 1999 before being handed to the military in 2006
  • Flight history: First vehicle launched in April, 2010, and landed eight months later
  • Cost: The budget line for the X-37B programme continues to be classified information

[UPDATE 8/1/12: This article has prompted quite a bit of discussion and I've added two links at the bottom where their authors explain why they think the premise does not stand up. JA.]

America's classified X-37B spaceplane is probably spying on China, according to a report in Spaceflight magazine.

The unpiloted vehicle was launched into orbit by the US Air Force in March last year and has yet to return to Earth.

The Pentagon has steadfastly refused to discuss its mission but amateur space trackers have noted how its path around the globe is nearly identical to China's spacelab, Tiangong-1.

There is wide speculation that the X-37B is eavesdropping on the laboratory.

"Space-to-space surveillance is a whole new ball game made possible by a finessed group of sensors and sensor suites, which we think the X-37B may be using to maintain a close watch on China's nascent space station," said Spaceflight editor Dr David Baker.

The X-37B, also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), looks like a mini space shuttle and can glide back down through the atmosphere to land on a runway, just like Nasa's re-usable manned spaceplane used to do before its retirement last July.

Built by Boeing, the Air Force's robotic craft is about 9m long and has a payload bay volume similar to that of a small van. But what goes in the payload bay, the USAF will not discuss.

The current mission was launched on an Atlas rocket and put into a low orbit, a little over 300km up, with an inclination of 42.79 degrees with respect to the equator - an unusual profile for a US military mission which would normally go into an orbit that circles the poles.

The X-37B's flight has since been followed from the ground by a dedicated group of optical tracking specialists in the US and Europe, intrigued by what the vehicle may be doing.

These individuals have watched how closely its orbit matches that of Tiangong.

The spacelab, which China expects to man with astronauts in 2012, was launched in September with an inclination of 42.78 degrees, and to a very similar altitude as the OTV.


"The parallels with X-37B are clear," Dr Baker says in Spaceflight, the long established magazine of the British Interplanetary Society.

"With a period differential of about 19 seconds, the two vehicles will migrate toward or against each other, converging or diverging, roughly every 170 orbits."

No-one can say for sure what sort of mission the spaceplane is pursuing; all the USAF has said is that the OTV is being used as a testbed for new technologies.

Artist's impression of Shenzhou 8 docking with Tiangong-1 An artist's impression of the recent Shenzhou capsule docking with Tiangong-1

But the suggestion any new sensors in the X-37B might take an interest in Tiangong's telemetry is certainly an interesting one.

Washington retains a deep distrust of Beijing's space ambitions - even its apparently straightforward human spaceflight missions.

Part of the problem is that China draws little distinction between its civilian and military programmes, unlike in other parts of the world, such as Europe, where the bloc's space agency, Esa, is committed by charter to "exclusively peaceful" programmes. European military space projects are the preserve of national governments.

In the US, also, that distinction is pretty clear with Nasa being charged with the majority of civilian projects.

In China, on the other hand, the lines are more blurred and the military reaches across all its space programmes.

"If this is what the X-37B is doing, I think it really is no bad thing," Dr Baker told BBC News. "As with the Cold War, the proliferation of space surveillance systems enabled us to get arms agreements that would not have been possible without each side knowing fully what the other side was doing."

Tiangong-1 (AP) Tiangong-1 was launched in September

Not everyone is convinced by the latest analysis.

Brian Weeden is a technical adviser to the Secure World Foundation and a former orbital analyst with the USAF.

He published his own assessment last year of the X-37B's capabilities and role as a platform to trial technologies before they are incorporated into a full-up spy satellite.

Mr Weeden still thinks the Middle East is a more likely target for any new sensors that the X-37B might be carrying.

"A typical spy satellite is in a polar orbit, which gives you access to the whole Earth," he told BBC News.

"The X-37B is in a much lower inclination which means it can only see a very narrow band of latitudes, and the only thing that's of real interest in that band is the Middle East and Afghanistan.

"Is it spying on Tiangong-1? I really don't think so. I think the fact that their orbits intersect every now and again - that's just a co-incidence. If the US really wanted to observe Tiangong, it has enough assets to do that without using X-37B."

The latest edition of Spaceflight, with its analysis on the X-37B, is published this weekend.

[UPDATE 8/1/12: Subsequent to this article's publication, Brian has gone into more detail on Space.com to explain why he thinks the X-37B cannot be spying on Tiangong-1.

And the noted NBC News Space Consultant, Jim Oberg, has posted his own assessment on the IEEE Spectrum's Tech Talk blog. Jim mailed me to say that although the spacecraft share similar inclinations, "they are in orbits which cross the equator about 90 degrees apart. They criss-cross each others' paths at thousands of meters per second. Any observation from one to the other is impossible."]

  • Tiangong-1 was launched in September on a Long March 2F rocket
  • The unmanned laboratory unit was first put in a 350km-high orbit
  • A Shenzhou 8 capsule rendezvoused and docked with Tiangong-1
  • The encounter tested key technologies such as life-support systems
  • Astronauts will visit Tiangong in 2012 in another Shenzhou vehicle
  • China aims to start building a 60-tonne space station by about 2020
Jonathan Amos Article written by Jonathan Amos Jonathan Amos Science correspondent

Lisa Pathfinder: 'Exquisite' gravity probe leaves UK

UK industry completes construction of the modules that make up the Lisa Pathfinder satellite - a remarkable probe that will test the key technologies needed to detect gravitational waves in space.

Read full article

More on This Story

Related Stories

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites


This entry is now closed for comments

Jump to comments pagination
  • rate this

    Comment number 211.

    For those who posted ignorantly about the "Long March" name as if it was referring to the month of March, the Long March refers to a historical "long march" (as in a long walk) made by Mao and his troops (to Beijing I think) as part of Mao's revolution in the 40's.

  • rate this

    Comment number 210.

    As Jim Oberg has pointed out, the story is a complete mistake. The orbital planes of the X-37 and the Chinese station are completely different. Even if they came close to each other, which is unlikely, they would pass at thousands of miles an hour in different directions. Both Spaceflight and the BBC, which are respected and credible organizations, should formally retract the story.

  • rate this

    Comment number 209.

    Re #208 tate8

    Britain invaded many countries during the erra of the British Empire. Today more than one third of the worlds population are members of the British Commonwealth. Countries that were not part of the Empire have joined/want to join. Even the USA would be considered as a member !

  • rate this

    Comment number 208.

    In response to the responses for comment no. 8.

    In the early 1900s, Britain invaded Tibet with the aim of having greater influence over Tibetan affairs.

  • rate this

    Comment number 207.

    I think the spy plane is looking at China's military build up, and it is probably looking at Iran and its nuclear development. Neither nation is very open, or transparent, therefore the United States along with Japan and other nations are justified in seeking knowlege about China's/Irans military intentions, and other factors which can be used to counter any aggression from China or Iran.

  • rate this

    Comment number 206.

    Is America spying on China? I hope so. The Chinese are determined to use space as the ultimate"high ground", having already fired a missile at a defunct satellite, thereby filling space with countless fragments of lethally orbiting junk. China seeks military domination in a way that neither the Americans or the former USSR ever did. China seeks to return to its past as "The Central Kingdom".

  • rate this

    Comment number 205.

    Re #2045

    Again: don't forget East Turkestan and its poor Uighurs.

    Uighuria invaded and rusthlessly subjugated about the same time by People's "Liberation" Army as Tibet.

  • rate this

    Comment number 204.

    Re #8 Lata

    China has attacked Vietnam, Russia, Korea and India since 1900.

  • rate this

    Comment number 203.

    re # 201 Galileo
    The plane is an experimental vehicle which has a range of capabilities and it could be used to repair, refuel, or recover satellites.

    Actually it can also deploy mini-recon sats in LEO on as-needed basis.

  • rate this

    Comment number 202.

    Chinese state-controlled Global Times newspaper, often nationalist in its opinions opines:

    "China needs to enhance its long-distance military attack ability and develop more ways to threaten US territory in order to gradually push outward the front line of its 'game' with America".

    Says it all basically about Beijing intentions, doesn't it?

  • rate this

    Comment number 201.

    The US does not need a sophisticated space plane like the X37 to spy on China, or the Middle East. I am sure the plane was manouvered to take a look at the Chinese space station as a demonstration of its potential, but the real spying is done by other satellites. The plane is an experimental vehicle which has a range of capabilities and it could be used to repair, refuel, or recover satellites.

  • rate this

    Comment number 200.

    It seems patently obvious to me that the Americans are researching the X37B as an emergency escape vehicle for the Chinese Space Station. Might need a few of them tho'. Chinese astronaut rides mini space shuttle to safety ! I can see it now. So sweet...

  • rate this

    Comment number 199.


    written by one of those people who can reduce everything to: 'simples'. the clue, I suppose, is in the (user)name.

  • rate this

    Comment number 198.

    Shh..be quiet about it. If the Iranians know about it, they might hijack the landing sequence of these spaceplanes so that when they return to earth, they end up in Tehran rather than Beijing or DC. Like they did with the drones...

  • rate this

    Comment number 197.

    Considering that most of Chinas space technology infact technology period, has been stolen from the west in the first place it is only fair that they spy on then.

  • rate this

    Comment number 196.

    When it lands in Iran, like the RQ-170 Sentinel, then we will know what it has been doing ;-)

  • rate this

    Comment number 195.

    "peaceful China since 1900."
    Ask veterans of HMS Amethyst or of the Korean war.

    "irresponsible USA ... Hiroshima".
    Ask ex Far East PoW's about this, residents of Nanking etc, how undeserved this was.

  • rate this

    Comment number 194.

    I think the X37B is mapping the oil water contacts of various significant oilfields in the Middle East. This will allow the US to plan the yield curve to their advantage.

    I think the orbit was chosen as an insurance policy against a repeat of 2007, when the Chinese shot down a satellite as a show of military prowess.

    The Yanks are still a generation ahead in terms of sophistication.

  • rate this

    Comment number 193.

    54 Minutes ago
    This comment has been referred for further consideration. Explain.
    LOL What did I just say ?? Haha, Communist China is not alone, keep removing my comments is just fine, good job ! Keep brainwashing your people !

  • Comment number 192.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.


Page 1 of 11



Copyright © 2015 BBC. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read more.

This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.