Who are the 55 bodies buried at the Dozier school?


VIDEO: Forensic anthropologist Erin Kimmerle wants justice for the children who died at the Dozier school

Forensic anthropologists are disinterring the remains of children at a Florida reform school. Former students hope the dig will provide answers about alleged child abuse within the school's walls.

Within the past year, anthropologists working for the University of South Florida (USF) have exhumed the remains of 55 children on the grounds of the now-shuttered Arthur G Dozier School for Boys.

The boys were buried in simple coffins in the Boot Hill cemetery section of the school. The remains were recovered along with items like belt buckles, buttons, and in one case, a marble.

From 1900-2011, the Dozier School in Marianna, Florida, was a state-run reform school for boys who found themselves in trouble - whether stealing cars, skipping school, or in the case of some children as young as one, needing an orphanage when none was available.

Young boys with administrators. Courtesty of State Archives of Florida/Florida Memory_Image DSB0310 Children at the School for Boys pose with administrators in this photo from the 1950s

In the past decade, hundreds of men have come forward alleging abuse and neglect on the part of the school - specifically, horrible beatings given out at a small white building on campus.

"There was blood on the walls, blood on the mattress I was on, blood on the pillow," says Alan Sexton of his time in the building the boys called the White House.

"It smelled to high heaven. They turned on a great big industrial fan to keep people from passing by to hear the screams."

Sexton was a student at the Dozier School in 1957. He was only taken to the White House once, and given 37 licks for making unapproved phone calls. But other men, like Jerry Cooper, the president of an advocacy group called White House Boys, reportly received over 100 lashes

It was the stories told by the White House Boys, who mainly attended the school during the 1950s and 1960s, that drew attention to Dozier and helped attract Erin Kimmerle, a USF forensic anthropologist, to the site.

Specifically, she was drawn to the stories of family members desperate to locate their loved ones' remains.

Composite image A facial recognition image created by the University of South Florida. The boy is between 10 and 12 years old.

Most of the records of deaths at the school did not list a cause. Boys died in a fire and a flu epidemic, and sometimes the poor and poorly educated parents were told that their sons died in accidents or in fights.

Often, the remains were sent home to be buried with families. But sometimes, families were notified of a relative's death and told that the body had been interred at the school. When they went to visit, the school did not provide the exact location of the plots nor give details about the deaths.

According to Kimmerle, the school did not keep a master list for the burial ground. There was no policy for its upkeep and care.

Erin Kimmerle examines an object in the field Erin Kimmerle examines an object in the field

"It's their desire to have the remains back to bury them next to their parents," says Kimmerle of the surviving relatives. "It wasn't something that was an option in the past when the deaths occurred. We feel it's very important to support them in that effort."

Using archaeological field methods, Kimmerle and her team estimated that about 50 students would be buried at the site - an increase from the 31 estimated by the state in 2009.

"In terms of that initial work, we were close," she says.

"Who they are specifically and what happened to them, we just don't know that."

The USF investigation is focused on finding those who had family members buried at Dozier so they can collect DNA and try to match remains, a task done in collaboration with the University of North Texas Health Sciences Center.

Abandoned building The school closed in 2011. Some buildings are maintained by the state, but others have fallen into disrepair

To this end, they have put out a list of known boys buried in the cemetery. So far, they have been able to track down relatives of 18 of these boys. This week, they released a composite sketch based on the skull of one of the bodies they recovered, to put a human face on their efforts, Kimmerle says.

In 2010 a state investigation into the school found "no tangible physical evidence" to "either support or refute allegations of physical or sexual abuse" during the White House boys era.

The following year, the government shut down the Dozier school, citing economic factors. Around the same time, the US Department of Justice released a report which says it found "harmful practices... that threatened the safety and wellbeing of youth" at Dozier and another reform school in Jacksonville, Florida.

Before the property could be sold, Kimmerle and her team won the right to excavate the grounds. She has until next August to search the ground relying on radar, dogs, old maps, and the testimony of former students.

Boys work repairing shoes A 1958 guide to the school showed children working jobs, playing sports and taking classes

Thus far no bodies have been discovered outside the loose bounds of the Boot Hill burial ground.

But Cooper, president of the White House Boys, says that the 55 bodies already found "are just the tip of the iceberg".

He believes the excavation at Dozier may be one of the last chances to prove the allegations they have been making for years.

When the BBC visited the site in February, crews were excavating the ground behind the White House but had found no remains.

Still, says Kimmerle, it is too early to rule out foul play in regards to any of the 55 sets of remains recovered. She also notes that their investigation indicates that the children who died in the fire were locked in their rooms with no means of escape, while those who died in the flu epidemic were abandoned by the staff without food or medicine.

Dogs and their handlers Canine recovery teams search the woods on the Dozier campus

No matter what else is found, the excavation and the continued attention brought to Dozier means that the story of what happened to Cooper and the other boys remains in the headlines and the story of life at the Dozier school continues to spread.

"I want it out there what happened to us," says Cooper, who has spent years advocating for the White House Boys. It was largely thanks to his organisation, along with dedicated reporting from the St Petersburg Times, that the story remained in the public eye.

"Don't feel sorry for us," he says.

"Feel proud that we brought it out into the open."


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  • rate this

    Comment number 61.

    I wish I liked the human race;
    I wish I liked its silly face.
    I wish, when I was meeting one,
    That I could say, 'What jolly fun' ...

  • rate this

    Comment number 60.

    It is never a surprise to me when I hear of stories like this. The southern Democrats in the day, and then the republicans they became when Johnson dared signed a bill giving them "Colored Folks" rights, have always based their warped and morally bankrupt philosophy on their "Rights" to abuse others. The police were for years, no different then the gestapo of old, Thought criminals beware.

  • rate this

    Comment number 59.

    I just want to say that this is horrifying and troubling but not suprising. Also this is neither a political or racial issue. One day we will all be held accountable for whats been done, what we say, and how we treat others, white or black, U.S or U.K. Left or right. Believe it!!

  • rate this

    Comment number 58.

    "The human race. Greatest monsters of them all." ~ The Master

    'Nuff said.

  • rate this

    Comment number 57.

    If there are any children reading this remember you don't have to suffer abuse now. You can ring childline, you can ring the police, you can ring the NSPCC, you can ring your Member of Parliament, you could even ring a national newspaper - you'll find a contact number in the paper. BBC please don't delete this.
    If you are not in Britain there will be similar organisations in your country.

  • Comment number 56.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.

  • rate this

    Comment number 55.

    God bless those poor children. Even in Roman times there was an educationalist who wrote that beating children was always destructive and should never be done. There was a teacher at my primary school who never punished any child in any way - in over thirty years of teaching! She was far the best teacher there. I was her most difficult child, she said, and we became the best of friends ever after!

  • rate this

    Comment number 54.

    Take a close look at the photo and in between the forced smiles these lads look fed up. I wish I had a time machine I would go back, take them out of there and try to make their lives a happy one. God bless.

  • rate this

    Comment number 53.

    Seems to be a remarkable similarity between this case and Haut de lla Garenne home in Jersey

  • rate this

    Comment number 52.

    @51 - perhaps they only ever photographed the white ones? If so, even more discrimination :-(

  • rate this

    Comment number 51.

    Strange how correspondents here are trying to create a race issue of this. If you cared to look at the photo from the 50s for instance, you'd notice all the boys are white.

  • rate this

    Comment number 50.

    48.David Evans
    My word, you're right, the more you read about it, the worse it gets. What's shocking is how recently it was still going on.

    I agree, there does seem to be a tendancy for the cruelest of people to work with the most vulnerable.

  • rate this

    Comment number 49.

    The absolute cruel and sadistics physchopaths that have found their way into the care of vulnerable children across the world is frightening. That disgusting obese beast of an MP was a classic example of a manipulative physchopath that had found his way into a positon of power to undertake sadistic abuse. Its time to stop protecting manipiulative physchos and start severely punishing.

  • rate this

    Comment number 48.

    Suggest anyone who is interested do a Google search on this school. a quite diabolical pace, written with the true meaning od diabolical - Devil like.
    1903 Inspection revealed Children kept in Leg Irons
    1983 Inspection said boys at the school were "hogtied and kept in isolation for weeks at a time"
    The BBC Article badly underplays the facts

  • rate this

    Comment number 47.

    17DrH"Am I missing something here, or is this a story about the murder of over 50 children"...?
    Yes, you are missing something. It helps if you read all of it and watch the video.

  • rate this

    Comment number 46.

    The faces of the boys in that 1950's photo are haunting, you can tell by their glum espressions and forced smiles that something wasn't right. I was educated at a Christian Bothers Grammar in NI during the 80's and 90's. The Brothers and many of the hangers on who taught their were just sadists plain and simple, they were the most misnamed organisation ever, nothing Christian about them at all!

  • Comment number 45.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.

  • rate this

    Comment number 44.

    As recent news in the UK shows, abuse of children still goes on and may well be covered up by the establishment. I have no doubt it is a lot worse in many other countries. Man exploits anything and everything, perhaps enough to ensure its own demise.

  • rate this

    Comment number 43.

    I was a pupil in an English secondary modern school in the 1950's, and reading this report does not surprise me.
    At my school you could be caned for having dirty hands, being a minute late and getting under 70% in the Friday arithmetic and spelling tests.
    When some people are given power over children they exhibit the most base behaviours. Abusers should be hanged - simple.

  • rate this

    Comment number 42.

    and there is a hys on this one because.... ?


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