10 reasons why so many people are moving to Texas

Icons of Texas

Half of the 10 fastest-growing cities in the US are in Texas, according to new figures. Why?

Every way you look at it, there are a lot of people moving to Texas.

Five of the 10 fastest-growing cities in the country between 2011 and 2012 were in Texas, according to new figures from the US Census Bureau. New York is way out in front in terms of added population, but Houston is second with San Antonio and Austin fourth and fifth.

Graph showing fastest growing cities

In terms of percentage growth, it's even more Texas, Texas, Texas. Among the five cities that grew most, as a proportion of their size, between 2011 and 2012, three are Texan. San Marcos is out in front with the highest rate of growth among all US cities and towns - 4.9%.

Some of this Texan population boom is due to a natural increase - more births than deaths - but the numbers moving into the state from elsewhere in the US and from abroad far outstrip every other American state. Why?

1. Jobs

"I don't think people go for the weather or topography," says Joel Kotkin, professor of urban development at Chapman University in Orange, California. "The main reason people go is for employment. It's pretty simple.

Most new arrivals 2011-12

  • Texas: 210,590
  • N Carolina: 60,106
  • Virginia: 40,844

"The unconventional oil and gas boom has helped turn Texas into an economic juggernaut, particularly world energy capital Houston, but growth has also been strong in tech, manufacturing and business services."

Critics have questioned whether the "Texas miracle" is a myth, based on cheap labour and poor regulation.

But Kotkin says Texas has plenty of high-wage, blue-collar jobs and jobs for university graduates, although people looking for very high-wage jobs would probably head to Seattle, San Francisco and New York.

Four of the top 10 metropolitan areas for job growth in 2013 are in Texas, according to Kotkin's website, New Geography.

Texas also has a huge military presence, which grew as defence spending increased in the decade after 9/11. Many retired Texans first came to the state as service personnel.

2. It's cheaper

Once employed, it's hugely important that your pay cheque goes as far as possible, says Kotkin.

Fastest growing cities in US (%)

  • 1: San Marcos, Texas (4.91)
  • 2: South Jordan, Utah (4.87)
  • 3: Midland, Texas (4.87)
  • 4: Cedar Park, Texas 4.67)
  • 5: Clarktown, Tenn (4.43)
  • 6: Alpharetta, Georgia (4.37)
  • 7: Georgetown, Texas (4.21)
  • 8: Irvine, California (4,21)
  • 9: Buckeye, Arizona (4.14)
  • 10: Conroe, Texas (4.01)

US Census Bureau, 2011-12

"New York, LA and the [San Francisco] Bay Area are too expensive for most people to live, but Houston has the highest 'effective' pay cheque in the country."

Kotkin came to this conclusion after looking at the average incomes in the country's 51 largest metro areas, and adjusting them for the cost of living. His results put three Texan areas in the top 10.

Houston is top because of the region's relatively low cost of living, including consumer prices, utilities and transport costs and, most importantly, housing prices, he says.

"The ratio of the median home price to median annual household income in Houston is only 2.9. In San Francisco, it's 6.7.

"In New York, San Francisco and LA, if you're blue-collar you will be renting forever and struggling to make ends meet. But people in Texas have a better shot at getting some of the things associated with middle-class life."

Texans who've left their mark on the world

Composite image showing, from left: Roy Orbison, Joan Crawford, Jayne Mansfield and George W Bush
  • Roy Orbison (pictured, first) was born in the small town of Vernon, in 1936, months before fellow rock 'n' roll great Buddy Holly, from nearby Lubbock
  • Joan Crawford(second), born Lucille Fay LeSueur to a poor San Antonio family, was famous for accepting an Oscar while ill in bed
  • As JR Ewing, Fort Worth's Larry Hagman became the face of long-running soap Dallas and just about the most famous man in Texas
  • Also robbers Bonnie and Clyde, singer Janis Joplin, country star Willie Nelson, cyclist Lance Armstrong, actress Jayne Mansfield(third)
  • Texas has produced two presidents: Lyndon Johnson and Dwight Eisenhower. Connecticut-born George W Bush (fourth) grew up there
3. Homes

Land is cheaper than elsewhere and the process of land acquisition very efficient, says Dr Ali Anari, research economist at the Real Estate Center at Texas A&M University.

"From the time of getting a building permit right through to the construction of homes, Texas is much quicker than other states.

"There is an abundant supply of land and fewer regulations and more friendly government, generally a much better business attitude here than other states."

This flexibility, plus strict lending rules, helped to shield the state from the recent housing market crash.

4. Low tax

'I moved because I had to'

Ryan and Jeff

Jeff Paradise, 32, works for an insurance company and relocated to Dallas in 2011, but he often returns to see his partner, Ryan (above left), in his native New York.

"I've been to quite a lot of cities in the US and Dallas is probably my least favourite. The one reason I'm here is for a financial purpose. I have a really good job but I work about 70-80 hours a week so if I had more free time, I would do more. It's a new American city, all sprawled out, because it came of age in the 60s and 70s when it was all about cars and highways. But it's definitely changed the last 5-10 years and they are trying to improve the public transport. I get the train and it's clean, on time and cheaper than New York."

Texas is one of only seven states where residents pay no personal state income tax, says Kay Bell, contributing tax editor at Bankrate and Texan native.

The state has a disproportionate take from property taxes, which has become a big complaint among homeowners, she adds. But overall, only five states had a lower individual tax burden than Texas, according to Tax Foundation research.

There are also tax incentives for businesses and this week legislators cut more than $1bn off proposed business taxes.

5. Pick your own big city

Texas has six of the country's 20 biggest cities, says Erica Grieder, author of Big, Hot, Cheap and Right: What America Can Learn from the Strange Genius of Texas.

Contrast this to, for example, Illinois, where if you want to live in a big city you can live in Chicago or you have to move out of state, she says.

But if you're in Texas you can be in Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, Fort Worth, or El Paso.

6. Austin in particular

Why I live in Austin

James McMurty

"Houston is a city, San Antonio is a city but Austin doesn't feel like that to me," says Texan-born folk singer James McMurty.

"I like it because it's equidistant to each coast so I can get in my van and drive to the west coast and drive around there for three weeks and then come home and do the same on the east coast and still have a life.

"It's far enough south that it doesn't get too cold and you don't get many twisters. And it's a blue dot [Democrat] in a red sea."

Restaurant manager Christopher Hislop, 33, moved in 2007 from Los Angeles to Austin, where he met his wife and they now have a nine-month-old boy.

"I came to Austin for a wedding and thought it was a really cool city and the people were nice - it was everything that LA wasn't but still had that hip vibe without pretension. The nightlife is great and there's an emphasis on getting out and about - they maintain trailways and nature.

"It's not Texas at all and that's what I liked about it. I don't know Texas very well, I grew up in Chicago, but Austin is not Texas because you think of 10-gallon hats and guys on horseback. It's a cliché but Austin isn't like that, it's hip and in the now. The rest of Texas is very conservative."

People like to perpetuate a myth that Austin is still the Austin it once was, says Joshua Long, author of Weird City: Sense of Place and Creative Resistance in Austin, Texas. So as it's become a big city, a movement has developed to "keep it cool, keep it weird and keep it environmentally friendly".

7. Family-friendly

Because of its good-value housing, Texas has been particularly popular with families, and some of its cities now have an above-average number of children. San Antonio is home to the largest community of gay parents.

In Texas, you can have a reasonable mortgage and pretty good schools, says Grieder. And restaurants are invariably family-friendly.

"You hear about the high drop-out rate but Texas education scores pretty well at national tests for 4th and 8th graders in math, reading and science. The aggregate is about average.

"The perception is that Texas has poor schools but it's not correct. Across the country in general, we don't have schools as good as we would like them to be."

In eighth-grade maths, for instance, Texas scored higher than the national average and outscored the three other big states of California, New York and Florida. On Sunday, an education budget was approved that restored cuts made in 2011.

8. Fewer rules

And why some might not move to Texas

University of Texas Longhrons in action
  • The weather - summer is hot. Very hot
  • Congestion problems growing in big cities
  • Not well known for fun nightlife, outside Austin
  • If you hate American football (above, University of Texas Longhorns), you might be outnumbered

"Texas is liberal in the classic sense, it's laissez-faire, so there's a lack of regulations," says Grieder, and this can apply to the obvious (business regulations) or the less obvious (city rules).

"The classic social contract is - we're not going to do a ton to help you but we're not going to get in your way. That's not 100% true of the state but there's that strand in the state."

Mortgage lending is an obvious exception. But there has been strong opposition to banning texting while driving and a proposed tax on soda.

And Governor Rick Perry is poised to sign off the strongest email privacy laws in the US, which would require state law enforcement agencies to get a warrant before accessing emails.

9. Texans are normal people

The state likes to proclaim itself as an unpretentious, down-to-earth place where people are easy to get along with.

As John Steinbeck wrote: "Texas has a tight cohesiveness perhaps stronger than any other section of America."

And for people with conservative values, it could be a natural home, although demographic shifts have prompted speculation it will be a Democratic state in the future.

People dream about moving to California, but they don't dream about moving to Texas, says Grieder, yet many of those reluctant to move there end up liking it.

She adds: "[They] realise that Texans aren't all Bible thumping, gun-toting people. The job is the trigger to come but you find it's pretty nice to live here."

10. And they're not going anywhere

All this doesn't just bring in new arrivals - native Texans aren't leaving the state either. It is the "stickiest" state in the country, according to the latest figures from the Pew Research Center, which suggest that more than three-quarters of adults born in Texas still live there. Alaska is the least sticky.

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  • rate this

    Comment number 377.

    Larry Hagman was not from Ft. Worth, he was from Weatherford. It's about 50 miles from Ft. Worth.

  • rate this

    Comment number 376.

    We've lived in Texas for 15 years. We love the people, even if we're not sold on the climate. Generally, people share conservative values, which is fine by us. If you work hard you are well rewarded in Texas. BTW, it's interesting that the map, at the top of the article, has tiny little Bay City in letters the same size as huge cities. Must be a very old map.

  • rate this

    Comment number 375.

    I've lived most of my life in Texas, except for four years in the heaven of Monterey, CA. Other places can be exquisitely beautiful ($) to live, but Texas still has a whole lot to offer. Good jobs are available and rents aren't exorbitant. I'm Buddhist and have never had a problem here. Many apartments within the D/FW area are surrounded by parks, trails and trees. Really, what more can one ask?

  • rate this

    Comment number 374.

    Houston has to be one of the ugliest places on earth and there is nothing near it to provide relief.Concrete highways,advertising signs,cables strung from here to there,endless car lots and shopping malls are everywhere.UGH!!!!

  • rate this

    Comment number 373.

    You may think housing and gas costs are low, but wages are low, and food and utilities are high. Jobs that pay $15-22/hr in other states pay $12, tops in Houston, much less elsewhere in the state. Buying a house may look cheap, look how many taxation/assessment districts have their hands out, not to mention HOAs. The petroleum industry is all about who you know not what.

  • rate this

    Comment number 372.

    #11. Some relocate to start fresh and not want to deal with drama.Lets look at a Superintendent who left another state and now is a teacher at Project Chrysalis MS teaching 8 math.She left as school board in Maine were updated on her engaging in promiscuous activity on school prop.Hopefully not another Kelly Ann Garcia from another state. TX seems to be a place of haven.Add your comment...

  • Comment number 371.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.

  • rate this

    Comment number 370.

    The article only states the good about Texas. Now, how about the bad, like 1. Water problems, 2. inflation is rising pretty fast (rents have gone up 20% in the last year, 3. a $15 job in Boston is only $7.50 in Texas, 4. illegals are about 17% of the population and growing with all the immigrants from the rust belt, California, and Mexico. And there are many more problems not reported here.

  • rate this

    Comment number 369.

    I would never live in Texas because I *hate* the extreme right-wing politics. I prefer living in liberal San Francisco.

  • Comment number 368.

    All this user's posts have been removed.Why?

  • rate this

    Comment number 367.

    The black and Hispanic population of Texas was in 2012 just under 50% of the population. They will form the majority of the population within a couple of years. Blacks and Hispanics tend to vote Democrat so logically Texas will turn blue in the very near future.

  • rate this

    Comment number 366.

    Moved my family from Northern Virginia to The Woodlands, Texas in 1977. The Woodlands populations was 2,500on 33,00 natural acres. It is now a town of 125,000 just 27 miles north of Houston. The schools are outstanding. Cynthia Woods Mitchell Pavilion has been compared to Wolf Trap for entertainment. Exxon selected The Woodlands for its new Headquarters, moving 10,000 employees here in 2014.

  • rate this

    Comment number 365.

    I spent two weeks in Austin during the autumn of 2011. I absolutely loved it from the relaxed, open and friendly nature of the people to the range of things to do which included parks, bike trails and of course the famous music festival. The weather was lovely and I walked around at night and never felt unsafe. I hope to return there for longer in the next year or so.

  • rate this

    Comment number 364.

    "You can say Texas schools are okay,...alterations to textbooks... include downplaying slavery and the Enlightenment."

    Am I the only person deeply shocked by this?
    Does anybody in the US care?

    "To teach young people things we know are not true is tantamount to an abuse of young people in a classroom situation."
    Canon David Jennings - Theologian Leicester Cathedral

  • rate this

    Comment number 363.

    #355" "I've been through DFW 3 time in transit* and got stopped 3 times."

    So? If you were in transit from international to domestic this is universal - 1st port of entry you clear immigration and customs, for connecting flights you go through security - always. Nothing unusual about DFW in that respect - just don't get me started on the horrors of the "integrated car rental center" :-)

  • Comment number 362.

    All this user's posts have been removed.Why?

  • rate this

    Comment number 361.

    I went to Texas on a school trip and I can honestly say it is the worst place I've been to. I did not like it one bit. I found the locals patronising, lazy and casually racist. When I asked one gentleman for directions to a synagogue I was told to go back to New York. I am from Paisley. There is a distinct difference between my accent and that of Dustin Hoffman.

  • rate this

    Comment number 360.

    @ And_here_we_go_again, I was born and raised in the American South (small town Arkansas) and spent most of my life not going to church. It was never an issue. I've lived in Texas now for 10 years, and I still don't go to church. No one has raised an eyebrow. My neighborhood in Dallas is liberal and gay-friendly, and no one cares about each other's religion.

  • rate this

    Comment number 359.

    We lived in Houston for 14 years. There are far worse places to live but I was never happy there. The God and gun culture, rabid republicans and generally weird people drove me mad.

  • rate this

    Comment number 358.

    Fleener, you sound like those "babies" you're complaining about...San Francisco is cooler this time of year, try going there.


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