Janeites: The curious American cult of Jane Austen

Scene from the film Austenland The film Austenland explores the world of Janeites

Two centuries after her most famous work, Jane Austen inspires huge devotion in the US. What makes this most English of writers so appealing to Americans?

She wrote it herself in 1813: "How much sooner one tires of any thing than of a book."

Jane Austen's own work is a case in point. It may be 200 years since her most celebrated novel, Pride and Prejudice, was published, but in the US she is the subject of more wildly devotional fan-worship than ever.

With their conventions, Regency costumes and self-written "sequels" to their heroine's novels, Austen's most dedicated adherents display a fervency easily rivalling that of the subcultures around Star Trek or Harry Potter.

Some Janeites, as they call themselves, write their own fiction imagining the marital exploits of Mr and Mrs Darcy. Others don elaborate period dress and throw Jane Austen-themed tea parties and balls.

Janeite sense and sensibility

South Carolina chapter of the Jane Austen Society of North America

Retired teacher Joanne Lannie (second from left), 65, is regional co-ordinator of the South Carolina chapter of the Jane Austen Society of North America

Every year we celebrate Jane Austen's birthday with a formal high tea. We have English tea and sandwiches, and we have quizzes and games too.

Members can wear their best Regency dresses. I had a Regency-style gown made with a 2ft ostrich feather.

It's all about celebrating a great author. It's like Star Trek fans having a convention.

We have about 60 members in our chapter and we meet nine times a year. We hold talks and lectures about Jane Austen at Charleston Library.

I love her fabulous dialogue, her dry sense of humour and her wit. Her stories are universal.

Blogs and forums dedicated to Austen and Austen-style fan fiction abound across the internet. The Jane Austen Society of North America (Jasna) boasts 4,500 members and no fewer than 65 branches.

In October 2012, more than 700 Janeites - many attired in bonnets and early 19th Century-style dresses - gathered in Brooklyn, New York for a Jasna event that incorporated three days of lectures, dance workshops, antique exhibitions, a banquet and a ball.

It's a curious phenomenon when one considers that Austen won little fame in her own lifetime, dying aged 41 in 1817 with only six novels to her name.

While she may be regarded as one of the greatest writers in English literature, it's difficult to imagine a similar level of fandom emerging around a novelist like, say, Charles Dickens.

For all that her stories can be by turns bleak and waspish, however, it's the romance of Austen's world that many Janeites say drew them in.

"There's a longing for the elegance of the time," says Myretta Robens, who manages one of the most popular US Austen fan sites, The Republic of Pemberley. "It's an escape."

Screen versions such as Andrew Davies's 1995 BBC adaptation Pride and Prejudice - famously featuring Colin Firth in wet breeches as Mr Darcy - and the 2005 film starring Keira Knightley as Elizabeth Bennet, contributed to an upswing of interest in all things Austen.

Colin Firth as MrDarcy and Jennifer Ehle as Elizabeth Bennet in the BBC adaptation of Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice Colin Firth and Jennifer Ehle did much to popularise Austen

But this alone does not explain why so many Janeites want to inhabit their favourite writer's world, whether by dressing up in the fashions of the era or writing their own Regency fiction.

"I think it's to do with the fact that we only have six novels and she died fairly young," says Laurel Ann Nattress, who runs the Austenprose blog and edited Jane Austen Made Me Do It, a collection of short stories inspired by the author.

"People just love her characters and they don't want to give them up."

It's all about Mr Darcy - Austen fan Jane Odiwe on her obsession

Robens, however, believes there is a more straightforward reason why readers feel compelled to compose their own versions.

"Quite frankly, I think a lot of people want more sex, particularly with Elizabeth and Darcy," she says.

A perusal of Austen fan sites reveals an abundance of stories with titles like Darcy Meets His Match and The Education of Miss Bennet.

It is not only online amateurs who have attempted to re-imagine these characters, however. Linda Berdoll's 2004 Pride and Prejudice "sequel", Mr Darcy Takes A Wife, was a bestseller.

Helen Fielding has stated her own Bridget Jones's Diary was loosely based on the original Austen plotline - hence the presence of a character named Darcy, played in the film version by Firth. The 1995 comedy Clueless was inspired by Austen's Emma.

Jane Austen

Jane Austen
  • Born 1775 in Steventon, Hampshire
  • First novel, Sense and Sensibility - about rational Elinor Dashwood and her impulsive sister Marianne - appeared in 1811
  • Followed by Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816)
  • Died in Winchester in 1817
  • Two further novels, Persuasion and Northanger Abbey, were published posthumously and a final novel was left incomplete

Nor is all ersatz Austen concerned with affairs of the heart. PD James's Death Comes to Pemberley involves the married Darcys in a murder mystery. Seth Grahame-Smith's Pride and Prejudice and Zombies re-casts the original novel in an alternate version of Regency England populated by hordes of undead.

The Janeite subculture was itself the subject of a popular comic novel, Shannon Hale's Austenland, a movie version of which premiered at the 2013 Sundance film festival.

Nonetheless, it might be seen as incongruous that Austen's fandom is so extensive in the US, a nation founded on the rejection of aristocracy and old world manners and traditions.

Indeed, when Pride and Prejudice was first published, the UK and US were at war. Nattress, who lives in Snohomish, Washington state, believes US Janeism is an expression of a persistent Anglophile streak in American society.

"I think that we look back to the motherland in many respects," she says.

"Look at the incredible impact Downton Abbey has had over here. It's a perfect example of how America is fascinated by British culture."

But while Austen's sharp prose, ironic wit and vivid characterisation are all key to her appeal, Robens believes that it is the romantic entanglements of her strong-willed heroines that draw so many to the books.

"It's women, in general, who fall in love with them," says Robens. "It's a truth universally acknowledged that women want to read about relationships."

Start Quote

Every dam' thing about Jane is remarkable to a pukka Janeite!”

End Quote From The Janeites by Rudyard Kipling

It was not always the case that Austen's fanbase was seen in these terms, however.

Indeed, the term Janeite was initially coined by the male literary critic George Saintsbury. Rudyard Kipling's 1926 short story The Janeites describes a group of soldiers brought together by their passion for the works of Austen.

According to Claudia L Johnson, an Austen expert and professor of English literature at Princeton University, the author was widely regarded well into the 20th Century not as a romantic novelist but as a steely, tough-minded, sardonic social critic.

"Now, alas, Austen is typically seen (by my students and others) as chick lit and she is beloved for her love stories," laments Johnson, author of Jane Austen: Women, Politics, and the Novel. "I think this is a real loss."

Previously in the Magazine

The US cult of Downton Abbey

It is hard to open a newspaper or click on a news website in America at the moment without reading something about ITV's Downton Abbey.

American Downton fans organise Sunday night viewing parties, shell out on themed merchandise and chat endlessly about the latest plot twists on Twitter and Facebook.

Johnson draws a distinction between the extravagant, amateur Janeites and their more academic counterparts, whom she terms Austenites. They are not categorisations which meet with much approval among most fans.

Nonetheless, Johnson acknowledges that attempting to remake Austen in the reader's own image is a valid exercise.

"Janeites - at least in the US - regard their excesses with a curious mixture of irony and seriousness," she says.

"They know it's absurd to throw tea parties, but the fundamental drive here - to try to be somehow connected with the world and life of a beloved author - isn't absurd."

It's likely Austen would agree. In her early writing she pastiched the 18th Century's so-called novels of sensibility and parodied historical tomes.

As the author herself put it in Pride and Prejudice: "A person who can write a long letter, with ease, cannot write ill."

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  • rate this

    Comment number 27.

    24. thelostdot

    given that you have a degree and therefore should be able to make a good argument why not expand and tell us why it's irrelevant drivel. I accept that you don't have to like it but I, for one, would be interested to hear your reasons.

  • rate this

    Comment number 26.

    Sex scenes in Jane Austen's novels? Absolutely not - totally not in the spirit in which those novels were written

  • rate this

    Comment number 25.

    I find it very hard to take the Janeites seriously when they apparently don't know the difference between high tea and afternoon tea.

    If people want more sex in their books, there are plenty of novels out there to choose from. Leave Austen's works alone. I know it's not illegal, but it's certainly immoral to anti-bowdlerize her books for profit or fame.

  • rate this

    Comment number 24.

    Had to study this as part of my degree. Biggest load of old irrelevant drivel I ever read, and says it all that these half wits are occupied with it, and that this is on HYS!

  • rate this

    Comment number 23.

    This is typical of Americans taking something of quality finding it glamorous and sensationalizing it, like they have done with Santa Clause & Halloween.

    At the time of JA their history was flaky and unestablished where as JA's characters give the reader the reassurance of a stable and historic society, the American people will always like to know where they come from, as do we.

  • rate this

    Comment number 22.

    "America is the only country that went from barbarism to decadence without civilization in between." - Oscar Wilde.

    Explains it all really.

  • rate this

    Comment number 21.

    18. Little_Old_Me

    A) and your point is...?

    B) I didn't say that. I said she wouldn't have married him if he hadn't been rich. There's a difference.

    The people who love Austen's world are deluded: the reality for most of us would have been forelock-tugging and scratching in mud. But hey, if you love a rigid class system with no way out, knock yourselves out. Personally, I'm glad it's all gone.

  • rate this

    Comment number 20.

    Austen is popular because it presents a stylised version of romance where the female is able to convince the male to change his characteristics for love. This appeals to women because in theory its possible but would never happen. Its equivalent of male obsession with menage-a-trois. Portrays Darcy as a man who is all things to Elizabeth. A prowling and aggressive alpha-male, but soft and caring.

  • rate this

    Comment number 19.

    Why does fan-fic always seem to end up as soft porn?

  • rate this

    Comment number 18.


    A/.. that makes them historically accurate - you'd rather she made up a fantasy world...???

    B/. Miss Bennett married Darcy for money? Ha! You've never P&P have you? Unless you are exhibiting predujuice with tongue firmly in cheek?!

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.

    Presents a romanticised version of historic reality that focuses almost exclusively on the politics/economics of marriage and inheritance; issues that were entirely irrelevant to 99.9% of the population at the time. It's a kind of inverse science fiction for women (nothing wrong with that though)

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    From a historical POV the Regency period was pretty 'naughty'. It was the late Victorians cracked down on this sort of thing so a bit more sex in an early 1800s novel isn't so unrealistic.

    That said I've no problem with fan literature but don't alter the original... wish someone would stop George Lucas doing the same!

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    4,500 Austen Appreciators out of a population of 300 million. Truly the BBC's Pride and Prejudice has contributed to an upswing in US interest about Austen. This article is a load of nonsense that throws in a few references to sex in a desperate attempt to titillate. Why is the BBC so obsessed with the USA? Who cares which authors they like?

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    Jane Austen is one of the literary world's most brilliant authors. Her descriptions of relationships do not need to be spiced up with sex all you need is your imagination and her suggestions. I love her work and P&P is my favourite so much so that when the weather is bad in the winter my other half and I often watch the whole of the BBC dramatisation. A perfect way to spend a day - a P&P day!!

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    As a committed and voracious reader of just about everything from Beowulf in the original, through Chaucer, Shakespeare to the modern novel, I have always found Austen a little uninspiring. Granted, she could write, but it has no personal appeal. Just the same, I feel that modern rewrites are dubious. No copies, please. Write something original instead. If you can do the one, you can do the other.

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    I love the way she allows her characters to be such awful people and yet we can still like them with all their faults, they are fully rounded and human so that you feel you can recognise them in the real people around you. If Emma were real you could love her whilst also wanting to wring her neck. A sharp yet loving wit.

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    It is the use of her omniscient narrator that shows this lady who knew her craft - she never talks down to the reader, but uses the narrator as the readers' representative in the story. These novels are not cosy aga sagas, these are examples of great fiction that finds new readers every generation. I cannot wait to introduce them to my nieces.

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    Austen's novels exhibit disgusting snobbery, and the concept of marriage as an economic transaction, not a love match. Elizabeth would never have married Darcy if he hadn't been rich. Is this the kind of world you long for? I certainly don't! The irony is that most of us would have been filthy peasants had we been born back then, and definitely not living in Darcy's world.

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    It brings romance into their lives whilst waiting for the American Dream to unfurl!

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    What keeps me coming back to Austin is her wit and humor at work in almost any line she wrote, the first line of P&P a fair specimen. It starts in ponderous, pompous tones but half way through another voice breaks in with a series of punchy monosyllables. The voice of everyday reaity breaks in on decorum. This introduces the comedy of husband/wife exchanges that follow.


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