The universal language of lullabies


Babylonia: One of the first written lullabies

No-one knows when the first lullaby was sung, but this is one of the first ever written down

From British Museum collection and courtesy of the trustees. Reading and photo, Richard Dumbrill

India: The Moon Uncle

The moon and stars are a popular theme in many lullabies

Music courtesy of Spitalfields Music and Vital Arts. Photo: THINKSTOCK

UK: Rocking the baby

Many lullabies are about rocking, and have a slow, soothing lilt aimed at mimicking a baby’s experience in the womb

Photo: THINKSTOCK. Sung by Rachel Nicholson

Kenya: Watch out for the hyena!

This lullaby offers a few words of practical advice to babies living in the wilds of rural Kenya

Photo: THINKSTOCK. Sung by Joseph Odhiambo, BBC Swahili service

Sweden: A lullaby to help learn language

Some lullabies are educational, and help introduce a range of sounds to help language learning

Photo: THINKSTOCK. Sung by Karl Sjoquist

Iraq: A sad desert lullaby

Lullabies are sometimes melancholy - like this one from Iraq, which is also sung at funerals

Photo: THINKSTOCK. Sung by Malak Aladami


Four millennia ago an ancient Babylonian wrote down a lullaby sung by a mother to her child. It may have got the baby to sleep, but its message is far from soothing - and this remains a feature of many lullabies sung around the world today.

Deeply etched into a small clay tablet, which fits neatly into the palm of a hand, are the words of one of the earliest lullabies on record, dating from around 2,000BC.

The writing is in cuneiform script - one of the first forms of writing - and would have been carefully shaped by a Babylonian scribe, with a stylus made of reed, in what is modern-day Iraq.

It's a rather menacing lullaby, in which the baby is chastised for disturbing the house god with its crying - and threatened with repercussions.

Frightening themes were typical of lullabies of the era, says Richard Dumbrill, a leading expert on ancient music with the British Museum in London, where the tablet is kept.

Start Quote

They're like advice columns for babies”

End Quote Zoe Palmer Musician

"They try to tell the child that he has made a lot of noise, that he woke up the demon, and if he doesn't shut up right now, the demon will eat him."

If this sounds more scary than sleep-inducing, it so happens that many lullabies - including those sung today - have dark undertones.

"Rock, rock, rock," begins one popular lullaby sung by the Luo people in western Kenya, before warning starkly, "The baby who cries will be eaten by a hyena," - an actual possibility in some parts of the country.

The well-known UK lullaby, Rock-a-bye-Baby, also contains danger, warning in the nicest possible way that the baby and cradle will drop from the bough of a tree.

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Four generations of one family in the Atlas Mountains, Morocco. Photo by Lily Al-Tai

Night-time has always been associated with darkness and fear and this may go some way to explaining the threatening themes in some lullabies, says Sally Goddard Blythe, author of a number of books on child development, and director of The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology.

But all lullabies - even the scary ones - she says, are rooted in "love, tenderness and caring".

Many lullabies, regardless of the meaning of their words, possess a peaceful hypnotic quality. Others are mournful or dark, like a lament.

Some are "telling you the history of the country, or telling you how you should or shouldn't run your life - kind of like advice columns for babies," says Zoe Palmer, a musician working on a lullabies project at the Royal London Hospital.

Palmer works with new mothers at the hospital, as part of a group of musicians, helping them to learn and share existing lullabies - as well as creating new ones.

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Lullabies belong to the instinctive nature of motherhood”

End Quote Richard Dumbrill Archaeomusicologist

It's a very diverse community - with parents from China, Bangladesh and India, as well as Italy, Spain, France and Eastern Europe - but she has found that lullabies are remarkably similar across cultures.

"Wherever you go in the world, women use the same tones, the same sort of way of singing to their babies," she says. Many lullabies are very basic, she notes, with just a few words repeated again and again.

Rhythmically, there are shared patterns too. Lullabies are usually in triple metre or 6/8 time, giving them a "characteristic swinging or rocking motion," says Sally Goddard Blythe. This is soothing because it mimics the movement a baby experiences in the womb as a mother moves.

As well as helping a baby to sleep, lullabies may serve and educational purpose.

Singing with a baby is a natural and effective way of sharing new words and sounds, says Colwyn Trevarthen, professor of child psychology at the University of Edinburgh and vice-president of the British Association for Early Childhood Education.

Mother's voice: An 'acoustic bridge'

A mother and baby in Kenya

A baby can hear sounds from around the 24th week of pregnancy - but they are muffled and much narrower in range than when they emerge in the outside world, says Sally Goddard-Blythe (4,000 Hz is the top end, versus around 20,000 Hz after birth).

The mother's voice is described by Russian paediatrician Michael Lazarev as an "acoustic bridge" between the cocoon of the womb and the outside world.

Babies hear sounds from outside, but the mother's voice is the most powerful sound, says Goddard Blythe, "because it's heard both internally and externally - with her body acting like the sounding board or the resonator of sound".

For example, a Swedish lullaby, Mors Lilla Olle (Mother's Little Olle), has eight different vowel sounds, in four rhyming pairs.

For decades Trevarthen has been studying how mothers and babies interact in the early months. His research suggests that babies are innately musical, and have an excellent sense of rhythm.

Even when a mother is not actually singing to a baby she tends to speak in a musical way, he says, with the notes and inflections of her words going up and down, and a clear rhythm.

What's particularly "astonishing" he says, is how precisely the baby responds - in coos and gestures - often exactly in time with the pulse and bar structure of her sounds. Baby and mother "get in the groove," he says, like jazz musicians improvising.

"Human beings are born with all these very strong human capacities for being expressive in time," says Trevarthen.

In the 1920s, poet Federico Garcia Lorca, who studied Spanish lullabies, noted the "poetic character" and "depth of sadness" of many of them.

One of the best-known traditional Iraqi lullabies, is a particularly sad one, about the heart-ache of missing relatives. It's often sung at funerals and ends: "What a pain in my heart. Oh my son, how I wish to hear from my loved ones."

Lorca's theory - which many researchers today would agree with - was that a large part of the function of the lullaby is to help a mother vocalise her worries and concerns. In short, that they serve as therapy for the mother.

We know that lullabies were deemed important enough to be documented by the Babylonians 4,000 years ago, but how much longer will they survive?

A baby with headphones on

There are many factors that could threaten the continuation of the lullaby tradition - the array of gadgets to entertain and pacify a crying child, and the increased reliance on technology for communication, for example.

Perhaps the habit of singing is less a part of everyday life than it once was, where previous generations without televisions and computers would naturally come together to sing and share stories.

But my research on lullabies indicates they are still going strong - from Kenya, to Syria, to Morocco to the UK.

In a word...

"Lullaby" derives from two earlier English words that were both used to soothe children - "lulla" and "bye". They were combined in the late 1500s to refer specifically to a song used to calm down children or put them to sleep.

Source: Kory Stamper, Merriam-Webster

Archaeomusicologist Richard Dumbrill suspects there may be something intrinsic to the experience of raising a child which will guarantee the lullaby's survival in the future.

"The oldest lullaby is certainly when the first woman sang to her first child," he says. "I'm quite certain that lullabies belong to the instinctive nature of motherhood."

Reem Kelani, a British-born Palestinian singer, agrees.

"It's one of those universal things," she says. "Whenever I sing a lullaby, wherever I am in the world, there are always people who relate to it.

"It's the umbilical cord… and that's the exceptional power of a bedtime lullaby - it's timeless and it's forever."

Nina Perry was reporting for a BBC World Service documentary series on lullabies. Listen to The Language of Lullabies and Lullabies from the Arab World. Image of family in Morocco, Lily Al-Tai.

Additional reporting by Cordelia Hebblethwaite

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  • rate this

    Comment number 43.

    Crooning a Child definitely calms the Child for sleep - as does reading to them in bed.

    Unfortunately - TOO MANY Parents just shot 'Bed!' to their Children - and then ignore them.

    The UK still suffers from our 'Broken Society' of the '90's...

  • rate this

    Comment number 42.

    Puff the magic dragon was a fav of mine when i was little. An old tree stump near me was christened puff in his honour and was a regular feature in our walks until one day it had fallen over and broken apart...many a sleepless night my parents endured thereafter due to the upsetting trauma of this early event in my life lol

  • rate this

    Comment number 41.

    Re 15 Clive Hamilton. If it's not your bag, don't read it and then there's no need to comment. But for some sir this is an interesting subject so in the interests of being unselfish, please leave the forum to those who would like to interact positively. As for me I recall a couple of timeless stories but no lullabies.

  • rate this

    Comment number 40.

    I wonder if there is there a relationship between the lullabies and fairy tales? Both often have a message based on morals or a warning and can tell it in a disturbing way.

  • rate this

    Comment number 39.

    Should have also mentioned that the wonderful folk singer Jackie Oates is just about to release an album of lullabies.

  • rate this

    Comment number 38.

    These samples seem to be about calming the caregiver as much as the baby. They concern divine wrath, hunger, animal attack, ignorance, attack by enemies and figurative fear. They might have been especially useful in dangerous scenarios when a baby's cries attracted one's attackers. Embracing one's fears seems a tested way to placate ourselves and survive.
    P.S. Thanks for including male caregivers.

  • rate this

    Comment number 37.

    Huffity Puffity Ringway Round
    If your hat falls off it'll never be found
    Pull your britches right up to your chin
    And fasten your clothes with a bright new pin
    Huffity, Puffity, Puff.

  • rate this

    Comment number 36.

    If I want a lullaby then I'd listen to BBC World Service 'Language of Lullabys'.

    If I want storytelling then I'd listen to BBC's R4's 'Today in Parliament'

  • rate this

    Comment number 35.


    You should be careful singing stuff like that to your children.You'll have some cardigan wearing,PC liberal after you for psycological child abuse.You'll be accused of leading poor Alex to a life of insecurity and a potential eating disorder.Social services will get involved,a 300 page report written, and Alex eventually put into care.

    If I were you I'd stick to g'mnt approved lullabies

  • rate this

    Comment number 34.

    I wonder if the bit "when the bow breaks the cradle will fall, down will come baby and cradle and all" might be trying to induce that feeling of "falling" we often get before we drift off?

  • rate this

    Comment number 33.

    I've always collected stories, but started tradional storytelling when my baby arrived. Since then I have wandered around Chester Zoo and discovered half the visitors & keepers following to listen to Just So stories as I showed her animals, and elicited a groan at the doctor's when my name was called before I finished telling her "The Man Who Only Came Out At Night"!

  • rate this

    Comment number 32.

    For many years, I thought that one of my favourite foreign language songs, Po Kare Kare Ana from New Zealand, was a lullaby until I found out it was a love letter from a Maori in the trenches in WW1.

  • rate this

    Comment number 31.

    Clive Hamilton

    Enough about lullabys - what happened to HYS over the weekend? The wrong sort of snow?


    Surely you don't expect the Moderators to work on weekends?

  • rate this

    Comment number 30.

    When my elder son was two he was obsessed with numbers and to get him off to sleep he wanted me to count to a hundred, it worked, after about four or five repeats he would be asleep, sometimes I would go to sleep as well. My younger son just had books, Other people complain when I sing.

  • rate this

    Comment number 29.

    @15. - what happened to HYS over the weekend?

    Perhaps someone sang them to sleep with a lullaby?

  • rate this

    Comment number 28.

    26. Tony : you take control of the situation and tell your child that lullabies now stop at this age. Simples.

  • rate this

    Comment number 27.

    Rock a bye Cameron,
    Thnking of war,
    What about some drone?
    That's what the're for
    Killing the children, no saying why.
    Goodnight my darling, sweet lullaby.

    What a future for children.

    10 YEARS of UK led violence? Wake up!

  • rate this

    Comment number 26.

    Be warned, if you start singing a lullaby every night, it becomes expected and is difficult knowing at what age to stop.....

    Do you think our daughter is old enough now?
    She is 37.

  • rate this

    Comment number 25.

    uk in this context does not make sense, both Scotland and England have disitinctive lulabies and traditions.

    Indeed, Scotland in three different languages, Gaelic, Scots and English.

    Blow the wind, blow;
    Swift and low;
    Blow the wind o'er the ocean.
    Breakers rolling to the coastline;
    Bringing ships to harbor;
    Gulls against the morning sunlight;
    Flying off to freedom


  • rate this

    Comment number 24.

    I do not remember ever singing lullabies to my son when he was an infant, even the cat would look disapproving and disappear if I sang! However he always had a story at bed time until he decided that he could read himself and did not need any help.


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