The universal language of lullabies


Babylonia: One of the first written lullabies

No-one knows when the first lullaby was sung, but this is one of the first ever written down

From British Museum collection and courtesy of the trustees. Reading and photo, Richard Dumbrill

India: The Moon Uncle

The moon and stars are a popular theme in many lullabies

Music courtesy of Spitalfields Music and Vital Arts. Photo: THINKSTOCK

UK: Rocking the baby

Many lullabies are about rocking, and have a slow, soothing lilt aimed at mimicking a baby’s experience in the womb

Photo: THINKSTOCK. Sung by Rachel Nicholson

Kenya: Watch out for the hyena!

This lullaby offers a few words of practical advice to babies living in the wilds of rural Kenya

Photo: THINKSTOCK. Sung by Joseph Odhiambo, BBC Swahili service

Sweden: A lullaby to help learn language

Some lullabies are educational, and help introduce a range of sounds to help language learning

Photo: THINKSTOCK. Sung by Karl Sjoquist

Iraq: A sad desert lullaby

Lullabies are sometimes melancholy - like this one from Iraq, which is also sung at funerals

Photo: THINKSTOCK. Sung by Malak Aladami


Four millennia ago an ancient Babylonian wrote down a lullaby sung by a mother to her child. It may have got the baby to sleep, but its message is far from soothing - and this remains a feature of many lullabies sung around the world today.

Deeply etched into a small clay tablet, which fits neatly into the palm of a hand, are the words of one of the earliest lullabies on record, dating from around 2,000BC.

The writing is in cuneiform script - one of the first forms of writing - and would have been carefully shaped by a Babylonian scribe, with a stylus made of reed, in what is modern-day Iraq.

It's a rather menacing lullaby, in which the baby is chastised for disturbing the house god with its crying - and threatened with repercussions.

Frightening themes were typical of lullabies of the era, says Richard Dumbrill, a leading expert on ancient music with the British Museum in London, where the tablet is kept.

Start Quote

They're like advice columns for babies”

End Quote Zoe Palmer Musician

"They try to tell the child that he has made a lot of noise, that he woke up the demon, and if he doesn't shut up right now, the demon will eat him."

If this sounds more scary than sleep-inducing, it so happens that many lullabies - including those sung today - have dark undertones.

"Rock, rock, rock," begins one popular lullaby sung by the Luo people in western Kenya, before warning starkly, "The baby who cries will be eaten by a hyena," - an actual possibility in some parts of the country.

The well-known UK lullaby, Rock-a-bye-Baby, also contains danger, warning in the nicest possible way that the baby and cradle will drop from the bough of a tree.

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Four generations of one family in the Atlas Mountains, Morocco. Photo by Lily Al-Tai

Night-time has always been associated with darkness and fear and this may go some way to explaining the threatening themes in some lullabies, says Sally Goddard Blythe, author of a number of books on child development, and director of The Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology.

But all lullabies - even the scary ones - she says, are rooted in "love, tenderness and caring".

Many lullabies, regardless of the meaning of their words, possess a peaceful hypnotic quality. Others are mournful or dark, like a lament.

Some are "telling you the history of the country, or telling you how you should or shouldn't run your life - kind of like advice columns for babies," says Zoe Palmer, a musician working on a lullabies project at the Royal London Hospital.

Palmer works with new mothers at the hospital, as part of a group of musicians, helping them to learn and share existing lullabies - as well as creating new ones.

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Lullabies belong to the instinctive nature of motherhood”

End Quote Richard Dumbrill Archaeomusicologist

It's a very diverse community - with parents from China, Bangladesh and India, as well as Italy, Spain, France and Eastern Europe - but she has found that lullabies are remarkably similar across cultures.

"Wherever you go in the world, women use the same tones, the same sort of way of singing to their babies," she says. Many lullabies are very basic, she notes, with just a few words repeated again and again.

Rhythmically, there are shared patterns too. Lullabies are usually in triple metre or 6/8 time, giving them a "characteristic swinging or rocking motion," says Sally Goddard Blythe. This is soothing because it mimics the movement a baby experiences in the womb as a mother moves.

As well as helping a baby to sleep, lullabies may serve and educational purpose.

Singing with a baby is a natural and effective way of sharing new words and sounds, says Colwyn Trevarthen, professor of child psychology at the University of Edinburgh and vice-president of the British Association for Early Childhood Education.

Mother's voice: An 'acoustic bridge'

A mother and baby in Kenya

A baby can hear sounds from around the 24th week of pregnancy - but they are muffled and much narrower in range than when they emerge in the outside world, says Sally Goddard-Blythe (4,000 Hz is the top end, versus around 20,000 Hz after birth).

The mother's voice is described by Russian paediatrician Michael Lazarev as an "acoustic bridge" between the cocoon of the womb and the outside world.

Babies hear sounds from outside, but the mother's voice is the most powerful sound, says Goddard Blythe, "because it's heard both internally and externally - with her body acting like the sounding board or the resonator of sound".

For example, a Swedish lullaby, Mors Lilla Olle (Mother's Little Olle), has eight different vowel sounds, in four rhyming pairs.

For decades Trevarthen has been studying how mothers and babies interact in the early months. His research suggests that babies are innately musical, and have an excellent sense of rhythm.

Even when a mother is not actually singing to a baby she tends to speak in a musical way, he says, with the notes and inflections of her words going up and down, and a clear rhythm.

What's particularly "astonishing" he says, is how precisely the baby responds - in coos and gestures - often exactly in time with the pulse and bar structure of her sounds. Baby and mother "get in the groove," he says, like jazz musicians improvising.

"Human beings are born with all these very strong human capacities for being expressive in time," says Trevarthen.

In the 1920s, poet Federico Garcia Lorca, who studied Spanish lullabies, noted the "poetic character" and "depth of sadness" of many of them.

One of the best-known traditional Iraqi lullabies, is a particularly sad one, about the heart-ache of missing relatives. It's often sung at funerals and ends: "What a pain in my heart. Oh my son, how I wish to hear from my loved ones."

Lorca's theory - which many researchers today would agree with - was that a large part of the function of the lullaby is to help a mother vocalise her worries and concerns. In short, that they serve as therapy for the mother.

We know that lullabies were deemed important enough to be documented by the Babylonians 4,000 years ago, but how much longer will they survive?

A baby with headphones on

There are many factors that could threaten the continuation of the lullaby tradition - the array of gadgets to entertain and pacify a crying child, and the increased reliance on technology for communication, for example.

Perhaps the habit of singing is less a part of everyday life than it once was, where previous generations without televisions and computers would naturally come together to sing and share stories.

But my research on lullabies indicates they are still going strong - from Kenya, to Syria, to Morocco to the UK.

In a word...

"Lullaby" derives from two earlier English words that were both used to soothe children - "lulla" and "bye". They were combined in the late 1500s to refer specifically to a song used to calm down children or put them to sleep.

Source: Kory Stamper, Merriam-Webster

Archaeomusicologist Richard Dumbrill suspects there may be something intrinsic to the experience of raising a child which will guarantee the lullaby's survival in the future.

"The oldest lullaby is certainly when the first woman sang to her first child," he says. "I'm quite certain that lullabies belong to the instinctive nature of motherhood."

Reem Kelani, a British-born Palestinian singer, agrees.

"It's one of those universal things," she says. "Whenever I sing a lullaby, wherever I am in the world, there are always people who relate to it.

"It's the umbilical cord… and that's the exceptional power of a bedtime lullaby - it's timeless and it's forever."

Nina Perry was reporting for a BBC World Service documentary series on lullabies. Listen to The Language of Lullabies and Lullabies from the Arab World. Image of family in Morocco, Lily Al-Tai.

Additional reporting by Cordelia Hebblethwaite

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  • rate this

    Comment number 23.

    Jack & Jill went into town to fetch some chips & sweeties..... Jack can't keep his blood pressure down & Jill's got diabetes...??!

  • rate this

    Comment number 22.

    Parents who imagine very young tots ought to"self-soothe"¬ bother adults with all the extra effort of a"settling down ritual"before falling asleep often overlook the very real fact that a tiny human cannot explain anything or even understand much.S/he cannot tell you the light's too bright orSmells cause nausea.Can't explain headache, tummyache,growing pains,sore muscles,cold,itch.Sing to Baby.

  • rate this

    Comment number 21.

    when our daughter was little. I sang Vera Lynne's lullabye every night...
    Then she decided it was babyish, so asked me to sing it in my head.

    If I do not spend enough time sitting there doing so, she complains and I have to start again........

  • rate this

    Comment number 20.

    Song is as old as speech & possibly predates it.The 1stLullaby was sung by the 1stMother to the 1stBaby.When a newborn cries the 1st natural reaction is to see if s/he safe &well.The 2nd reaction is to comfort. Naturally,that means hold close;a held baby,if well, immediately softens even s/he does not immediately grow silent.The movement of comforting naturally gives rise to swaying &then sounds.

  • rate this

    Comment number 19.

    We made up our own songs for our little boy; to the tunes of Robin Hood, and to the tune of the Addams Family. They're nice simple melodies and work even on an energetic toddler.

    They're chubby and they're chunky,
    they're on a little monkey,
    they're chubby and they're chunky,
    they're Alexander's legs...

    Repeat with different body parts :-)

  • rate this

    Comment number 18.

    When my daughter was expecting her son, who will be 3 in May, we played two particular pieces of Music very frequently: Mozart's Rondo alla Turca (Lars Roos playing on YTube) & a traditional lullaby. To this day, although he knows & loves a great variety of music, he quiets &responds best to these 2 pieces. What's curious is he can tell the Roos performance apart from any other! And prefers it!

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.

    Fascinating article and it doesn`t surprise me that many of them are disturbing if you look to deeply into them. My favourite has to be golden slumbers, an absolute perfect lullaby

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    When a child is growing, it is learning as much how to hear as how to speak, the brain 'teaches' the ears how to recognise certain sounds, especially their parents voices, so children are, if anything, more responsive to sound and rhythm than adults are, because their brain is actually putting a lot more effort into processing it.

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    Enough about lullabys - what happened to HYS over the weekend? The wrong sort of snow?

    Maybe the contributors here could make this sad BBC event into a lullaby

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    Oranges and lemons (probably more nursery rhyme than lullaby), which my mum used to sing at bedtime finishes "Here comes a chopper to chop off your head. Chop, chop chop till the last man is dead" and the rest of the song is about not paying your debts all to a happy tune. It is a shame that such a macabre mix of a happy tune and sinister setniment would not be considered politically correct today

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    My 3 year old grandson visits often and loves to put on the headphones to listen to music. . . . . . . . He doesn't need a lullaby to go to sleep, he loves to listen to Stereophonics! Sends him to sleep every time and I even have the pics to prove it :)

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    No change our Politicians have been telling us fairy tales for years.

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    In ancient times, a crying baby very probably would attract predators: a soothing lullaby would both avert the danger and teach a valuable lesson at the same time. It's protection for mother and baby alike.

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    The universality of lullabies and their implicit menace make sense, but I question the assertion that the Babylonian text necessarily constitutes a "lullaby." Karel van der Toorn describes these "lullabies" as incantations in "Magic at the Cradle: A Reassessment." To call them otherwise, he suggests, is "mere speculation based on an impressionistic reading."

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    I can't see a newborn now without swaying. Once you've looked after a baby these things stay with you.

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    Yeah,how interesting! I've heard a lot when I was a kid.
    Maybe from the very moment we're born,we're affected in some way or another.

  • rate this

    Comment number 7.

    Ian Anderson has an interesting attitude to lullabies...

    Not everyone on the planet is obsessed by T.V. and the interweb. As long as there are mammies and babbies there shall be lullabies.

  • rate this

    Comment number 6.

    I liked the Indian one. May be because I am from India. Anyway I used to hear a lot of different ones from my mother.

  • rate this

    Comment number 5.

    Our family lullaby wasmade up and sung by my grandmother to my sister in 1941. It,s called "I,m going to write a lette", tells of how much the nana loves the baby, in a letter she will write to her. It,s soothing, touching....and it works every time. This, from an almost illiterate lady from Brum has been sung to evey generation since. A strange and wonderful legacy. Thank you Nana!

  • rate this

    Comment number 4.

    I'm a GP, 21 weeks pregnant and feeling quite a bit of foetal movement. I play the cello and listen to a lot of music and would imagine the intra-uterine acoustics of external noises to be fairly poor. Baby must hear a lot more of my bowel sounds (sorry!), breathing, and the relentless rhythmic beating of both our hearts - which must be what gives them their excellent innate sense of rhythm.


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