Should lunch breaks be mandatory?

 
Woman eating noodles at her desk

People are always being told that lunch is under threat from workaholism, but would a compulsory long break actually mean we achieved more? Former Wall Street trader Frank Partnoy thinks so.

Most of us rush through lunch. We might have a sandwich at our desk or grab a quick salad with a colleague. Or perhaps we skip lunch altogether. After all, breakfast is widely regarded as the most important meal of the day. Dinner is often the most enjoyable. Lunch gets short shrift.

Lunch also has suffered from the crush of technology. Email, social media, and 24-hour news all eat away at lunch. Even when we have lunch alone, we rarely spend the whole time quietly reading or thinking. We are more connected to our hand-held electronic devices than our own thoughts.

Given the fast pace of modern life, it is worth considering whether employers should require a substantial lunch break.

Or, if a mandatory lunch seems too draconian, perhaps employers could give workers incentives to take time off for lunch, just as in some countries they subsidise or reward regular visits to the gym or a physician. Would we benefit from a long intraday pause?

About the author

Frank Partnoy

Former Wall Street trader Frank Partnoy is a professor of law and finance at the University of San Diego and author of WAIT: The Useful Art of Procrastination

One obvious reason to do lunch is to slow down and gain some perspective. If we burrow into work, and don't come up for air during the day, we will have a hard time thinking strategically or putting our daily tasks into broader context.

By taking a lunch break, we can think outside the box. In the interviews I conducted for my book, I was struck by how many senior leaders stressed the importance of strategic "downtime" - lunch or some other block of an hour or more per day - to break up their thinking and spur them to be more strategic.

Where we have lunch can be almost as important as whether we have it. If we sit down at a real restaurant and take time to chat leisurely with colleagues, we are more likely to slow down than if we dash to a fast food chain. In fact, a fast food lunch can be more harmful than no lunch at all.

The dangers of fast food are deeper than caloric ingredients and unhealthy food preparation. Recent studies have shown that fast food also has pernicious effects on how we think. For example, Sanford DeVoe, a psychologist at the University of Toronto, has shown that merely being exposed to a fast food logo speeds up our already-fast snap reactions.

Defining terms

  • The Oxford English Dictionary records lunch to mean midday meal as first appearing in about 1829, from "when it was regarded either as a vulgarism or as a fashionable affectation"
  • But "lunch" was first recorded at end of the 16th Century to denote a piece or hunk of food
  • And as an abbreviation of "luncheon", "lunch" was recorded from 1786, according to Online Etymology Dictionary

Urban fast food locations are packed at lunchtime. In the suburbs, the drive-thrus are lined with cars. People who eat at fast food restaurants might think, as the old McDonald's slogan suggested, that they deserve a break. However, they aren't getting one.

When people do lunch quickly, they often feel forced to choose fast food. But that kind of lunch experience doesn't slow us down. Instead, it speeds us up.

A mandatory break would be especially helpful for people who trade stocks during their lunch break. When I worked in Morgan Stanley's derivatives group in Tokyo during the 1990s, there was a mandatory halt to trading every day for 90 minutes during lunch.

I was struck by the positive impact of the break on the tempo of trading. The pause led to more rational thinking about the trading day and often helped cooler heads prevail during times of stress. We read. We contemplated strategy. Sometimes we even ate.

Today, many individuals trade too much. A mandatory break might help wean day traders off the addiction of constant trading. Unfortunately, the trend is toward more trading, not less.

Woman eating food at her desk Crying inside?

Historically, stock exchanges in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore recognised the benefits of a lunch break. But now the Asian markets are moving toward the Western model of continuous trading, and shortening their lunch breaks.

A long, mandatory lunch would also benefit another important group - single people. It would free up time for them to do something people don't do nearly as well during the evening - go on a date.

Dinner is a risky proposition for a date, especially a first one. It almost always lasts too long. If the date goes poorly, both people want to leave after an hour, but find it awkward to do so. And even dinner dates that go well probably should end sooner than they do. There is plenty of time for a second date.

The two factors that matter most at the early stages of a relationship are chemistry and compatibility. You can get a sense of those during an hour-long lunch, but not based on a glance. Also, there's a hard stop so both people know the date is going to end.

Although a mandatory lunch could generate substantial benefits, we are unlikely to do it on our own. When we have the choice, many of us see the salient costs of a leisurely lunch, but not the benefits.

To encourage people to enjoy the benefits of lunch, we need to change the lunch default rule with the kind of "libertarian paternalism" advocated by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein in their book Nudge. Just as they would impose a default rule requiring people to save money, while permitting them to "opt out," employers could do the same for lunch. People could skip lunch if they wanted, but they would have to take some action - fill out a form, or log on to a website.

Lunch box

A number of high-profile names have mused about the midday meal...

"Lunch is for wimps" - Gordon Gekko, character in 1987 film Wall Street

"There's no such thing as a free lunch" - popularised by Milton Friedman, economist

"Ask not what you can do for your country. Ask what's for lunch" - Orson Welles, actor and director

"A man may be a pessimistic determinist before lunch and an optimistic believer in the will's freedom after it" - Aldous Huxley, author

"I haven't trusted polls since I read that 62% of women had affairs during their lunch hour. I've never met a woman in my life who would give up lunch for sex" - Erma Bombeck, journalist

"Office hours are from 12 to 1, with an hour off for lunch" - George S Kaufman, playwright

Economic growth was supposed to make us better off by creating more opportunities for leisure. Yet people feel they are working harder than ever. A mandatory break might help reverse this trend.

And it wouldn't necessarily create an unproductive 90-minute block. Employers could ensure someone is on staff at all times by staggering lunch periods (11:30-13:00; 1200-13:30 and 12:30-14:00), like schools do.

Finally, lunch breaks could create new opportunities for part-time work by institutionalising two half-time shifts - one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Parents with newborns might choose to work just one of those times. It might become easier and more acceptable to become a halftime employee if there were a clean, natural split between morning and afternoon.

If our leaders want to improve economic growth and productivity, they could start by experimenting with a policy tool that is simpler than fiscal spending and less risky than monetary stimulus. How about lunch?

 

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  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 529.

    @528: You don't 'work' 9 to 10 hours a day, 6 days a week. You 'appear to work' 9 to 10 hours, 6 days a week and there lies the problem.

    In fact if what you say is true, then you're either useless at your job or too weak to challenge why you are working such hours in the first place.

  • rate this
    -1

    Comment number 528.

    Lunch Breaks, what are those?

    I work 9 to 10 hours a day, 6 days a week.
    A lunch brake for me is standing up wolfing down a sandwich or a plate of food, why would I want a mandatory lunch break of 90 minutes so that I have to stay 90 minutes longer in the evening!
    I also have no cigarette breaks (As I don't smoke)

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 527.

    It will all be irrelevant, a lot more work will done from home. As globalisation continues markets will have to find their level. We cannot be competitive running cars at 140p a gallon of fuel, paying parking charges, massive rents and rates on offices when none of it is necessary anyway.

    As we finally adapt to get competitive, we will switch to results based working and have lunch when we want.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 526.

    Lunch breaks should be encouraged more than made mandatory, people put too much emphasis on work these days, going through our lunch, tea, snacks etc, like there is no tomorrow. You need to give your body nourishment to give you energy to do your work well. I'm talking about real food, not junk food You want to retire healthily, don't you? So look after the most important person to you, "You"!

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 525.

    I'm very lucky to have a gym on site at the office. A lunchtime workout gives me better focus for the rest of the day and keeps me healthy. When meetings mean I don't get a lunch break, let alone a workout, I'm not as productive, feel crap at the end of the day and can't sleep properly. Oh yeah, and PMT doesn't even get close to my mood......

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 524.

    @519: Everything you list there is utterly pointless. The economy won't grind to a halt as a result of any of it and we don't need to waste hundreds of millions of the public purse policing it.

    Maybe then we can cut taxes, work less hours and have more free time to call our own. And the policemen can have their kebabs in peace.

  • rate this
    +3

    Comment number 523.

    I used to enforce my hour-long lunch break by taking a 25 minute walk to a park, eating my lunch there, then walking back. I recommend it. Refreshes you *and* makes you healthier.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 522.

    I couldn't agree more. As they say, 'haste makes waste'. The trend in the UK has been to work people into the ground instead of maximising the talent we have. I would sooner spend more time at work by having a longer lunchtime rather than finishing mid afternoon. I have known for years that without a decent break at lunchtime my performance in the afternoon deteriorates rapidly.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 521.

    516.jokerjets

    Become a night Security Officer, You have to work 12 hour shifts but you get an 11 hour break ;)

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 520.

    @516: And not to go too far off topic, you get a drop in pension, but how about me as your paymaster? My earnings have dropped 50% during the recession but my tax burden increases. I work longer and earn less to pay for you and you moan you're getting a little bit less when you retire. Stress? Get a real job dude.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 519.

    @516 Pointless rules? Like failing to observe speed limits, failing to indicate, parking on double yellow lines, sounding horns rather than getting off your fat backside and knocking on a door, driving the wrong way down one way streets, ignoring no right (or left) turn signs. All happens round here. But all motorists are victimised of course. Really. Police should have tyre immobilisers

  • rate this
    +3

    Comment number 518.

    516. jokerjets
    +++
    Get a transfer to Essex Police, the only time I see coppers is at the Kebab van or in the chip shop.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 517.

    @516: Stop chasing motorists who break pointless rules, have a proper lunch break instead and put your efforts into chasing real criminals then. The nature of your job means that planned breaks are always going to be difficult, so take the time when it presents itself instead of being petty with the public to raise lots of £60 fines.

    Always a solution to a problem ;)

  • rate this
    -2

    Comment number 516.

    As police officer I have never been given a break in 6 years. I don't get to home from work early due to this fact. I eat on the move. I risk my life in the work that I do, have just lost a substantial amount of pension that I was expecting and really need a career change to reduce the stress that this job brings upon me. Perhaps I wouldn't feel this way if I got the odd break once in a while.

  • rate this
    +3

    Comment number 515.

    513. Boro Jonesy
    +++
    Can't argue with you there, I've spent a lot of time working with people who put a lot of effort into making it look like they were good at what they did when they actually weren't.

    When I stated work in the early 80's, there was a ''Job 'n knock'' philosophy, come in , get the job done, go home. You don't seem to see that any-more.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 514.

    512 Did I say I wanted everyone else to work as I do? No, I just want to use my life in the most intelligent way possible. It is our children who will look after the next generation, so we all have a stake in ensuring they are well cared for and given the chance to become productive individuals, whether or not we have our own children. The article talks of mandatory breaks - not for me, please.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 513.

    @512: It's not just people with kids who are fed up of their lives being dominated and wasted by pointless work. I personally can out-perform someone on a good level in my discipline by about 10-1 and I only work usefully about 2 hours a day.

    If work and leisure time were better balanced then productivity would soar because less people would waste time looking busy when they aren't

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 512.

    511. walnutandcoffeecake
    +++
    So as usual the people with children expect everyone else to work around them.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 511.

    The longer the lunch break, the more your precious earnings are spent on childcare, and I resent paying for childcare just to hang around the workplace. I'd rather spend my time at home, once I've done a decent day's work. I guess the costs of childcare would increase as well if we had to pay for the childcare staff getting longer breaks.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 510.

    @505 "Its not the hours you put in but what you put into your hours that counts."

    I could not agree more, but our culture still hasn't changed from the hideous grey suited 9-5 merchants. The fact people are sat there reading the BBC news website all day long and contributing nothing is irrelevant to these muppets. All they care about is a bum is on a seat and they get to keep them there. Idiots!!

 

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