Would you want to be a Freemason?

Clockwise from top left: Egyptian room inside Freemasons' Hall, London; facade of the same; Benjamin Franklin on US note; detail of worshipful master; Masonic founding constitution (images courtesy of Thinkstock and Getty images)

Dogged by conspiracy theories, Freemasons insist theirs is a modern, open organisation. But can this male-dominated body cast off its secretive image and win over a sceptical public?

They designed the pyramids, plotted the French Revolution and are keeping the flame alive for the Knights Templar. These are just some of the wilder theories about the Freemasons. Today they are associated with secret handshakes and alleged corruption in the police and judiciary.

But dogged by this "secret society" image, the Freemasons have launched a rebranding exercise.

On Friday, the United Grand Lodge of England, the largest Masonic group in Britain, publishes its first independent report. The Future of Freemasonry, researched by the Social Issues Research Centre, aims to start an "open and transparent" discussion ahead of the group's tercentenary in 2017.

Nigel Brown, grand secretary of the United Grand Lodge, says it's time to banish the reputation for secrecy. "We're being proactive now. It's essential we get people's minds away from these myths." For instance, there is no such thing as a secret handshake and professional networking is forbidden under Masonic rules, he says.

Even this is disputed. Martin Short, who wrote about the Masons in his 1989 book Inside the Brotherhood, says the handshake is real. "If you meet a middle-ranking police officer, you'll suddenly find this distinctive pressure between your second and third fingers. The thumb switches position and you feel that someone is giving you an electric shock."

Illustration of a "masonic handshake" Stereotypes such as the handshake persist

The report for the most part dodges such controversy, surveying members and the wider public on Masonic themes such as male bonding, charitable work and ritual. It argues that members value the community of Freemasonry and that outsiders are largely ignorant of how the organisation works.

With 250,000 members in England and Wales and six million around the world, they are a minority, albeit one associated with the levers of power. The first US President, George Washington, and another leading American revolutionary, Benjamin Franklin, were Masons. Today a significant proportion of the Royal Household are members, and the Duke of Kent is grand master of the United Grand Lodge of England.

Masonic rules demand that members support each other and keep each others' lawful secrets, which has led to fears of corrupt cliques developing.

It's nothing new, says Observer newspaper columnist Nick Cohen.

Ever since the 1790s Masons have been "whipping boys" for global conspiracy theorists, he argues, adding that after the French revolution, Catholic reactionaries were looking for a scapegoat and the Jews - the usual target - were too downtrodden to be blamed.

Freemasons in popular culture

Spooks cast, L to R: Matthew McFayden, Keeley Hawes and Peter Firth

Freemasons Hall in London's Covent Garden stood in for MI5 headquarters in the BBC spy drama, Spooks (pictured above)

An episode of The Simpsons charted Homer's attempts to join a fictional secret society called the Stonecutters, and the comic disasters that ensued

Fred Flintstone of the eponymous 1960s cartoon belonged to a club with Masonic echoes - the Loyal Order of Water Buffaloes Lodge, for men only

It was the Freemasons' turn and the narrative of a secret society plotting in the shadows has never gone away, says Cohen. "You can draw a straight line from the 1790s onwards to the Nazis, Franco, Stalin right up to modern Islamists like Hamas."

The charter of Hamas - the Islamist party governing Gaza - states that the Freemasons are in league with the Jews and the Rotary Club to undermine Palestine.

These theories are "clearly mad", says Cohen, but attacking the Masons has become a staple for anyone suspicious of a New World Order.

There's also the sense that Freemasons are "weird", says James McConnachie, author of the Rough Guide to Conspiracy Theories.

Initiations include rolling up one's trousers, being blindfolded with a rope round one's neck, and having a knife pointed at one's bare breast. "They offer a progression to a higher level of knowledge," McConnachie says. "It's alluring and cultish."

Grand secretary Brown argues that the initiations are allegorical one-act plays. They give people "from all walks of life" the chance to stand up in front of an audience, conquer their fears, and make friends, he says.

"People don't associate fun and enjoyment with Freemasonry but it's the common thread for us. It's about camaraderie and making lasting friendships."

Another vexed issue is its male-only image. There are women's orders in Britain with 20,000 members, but Freemasonry is overwhelmingly male. The UGLE does not recognise or approve mixed lodges.

The report talks of a "quiet revolution". But some information should be withheld from public view, Brown says. "Keeping a bit of mystery is good news. If people joining know absolutely everything, where would the excitement be?"

Painting of Masonic Lodge meeting, depicted with curtains being drawn back to reveal people within The centuries-old veil of secrecy is falling away

The Masons are walking a difficult tightrope, says brand consultant Jonathan Gabay. For the rebrand to be effective, they have to demonstrate they are serious about being open and transparent. And yet, in the process, they risk alienating members who value the "cachet" of secrecy and tradition, he says.

People join the Masons not because it is a community group raising money for charity but for its "snob factor" and history, argues McConnachie. If this is overtaken by a transparent, inclusive approach then the organisation would be indistinguishable from many other dining clubs. "You'd have to ask - why would you want to be a Freemason rather than a Rotarian?"

Distrust remains strong. Last year, the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams controversially named a Freemason as the next Bishop of Ebbsfleet. He had previously said that Freemasonry was "incompatible" with Christianity. In August 2010 it emerged that a new national Masonic lodge had been set up by senior police officers.

Former Home Secretary Jack Straw tried to address the issue of Freemasons working in the criminal justice system. In 1999, new judges were required to publicly disclose whether they were Masons.

But after a ruling from the European Court of Human Rights, the requirement was dropped in 2009. Police officers have a voluntary requirement to disclose - but only to their superiors.

Open day at the Grand Lodge of France's freemasonry in Paris, 2010 An open day at the Masonic lodge in Paris

Researching his book in the 1980s, Short found that "corruption in the police was enhanced and shielded by the Masonic lodges."

It's difficult to know whether anything has changed as the Freemasons do not make their membership list freely available, he says. Brown responds that to do so would breach data protection rules.

Given all the suspicion, it's hard not to feel sorry for Freemasons, says Cohen.

"Researching them, you do become rather sympathetic. If people want to say Freemason lodges are nests of corruption then fine. But they've got to prove it. It's no good just saying it."

However, there is something amusingly peculiar about Masonic ritual. It is this rather than the historical baggage that is their biggest obstacle to getting a fair hearing, he argues. "Rolling your trouser leg up is quite funny. If they do want to rebrand then perhaps they should drop the trouser leg rolling."

How to spot a Masonic building

Masonic lodges and symbols on buildings in London and Washington DC (images courtesy of BBC and Getty)

"Masonic legends associate geometry with ancient Egypt, and so buildings sometimes have a distinct Egyptian flavour," says Professor James Stevens Curl, author of Freemasonry & the Enlightenment: Architecture, Symbols, & Influences.

"Columns often appear 'distyle in antis', meaning a pair of columns set between two walls to form a porch or some other element in a building [examples in top images]. However, many examples of 'distyle in antis' feature classical columns based on Greco-Roman exemplars, so this can sometimes be a subtle way of alluding to the lost Temple of Solomon.

"The letter G often appears in Masonic buildings [pictured bottom]. Some have said this is the deity, but if that were so, the French would use D instead of G. The use of this symbol seems first to have been associated with geography, but later with geometry."


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  • rate this

    Comment number 403.

    In the picture of the masonic handshake, one chap appears to have six fingers, so spotting a Freemason should be fairly straightforward, without any need for all the secrecy.

  • rate this

    Comment number 402.

    As a currently non practising mason, what I would add is that masonry essentially am dram with dinner - and in the right lodge is the most fun this old man can have in a dimly lit room with a bunch of old guys.

    Yes, it is slightly odd, yes it is slightly arcane. But it is harmless and does raise money for charity and like google does no evil.

  • rate this

    Comment number 401.

    There is nothing to worry about when it comes to the freemasons, they are nothing more than a "old boys club"

    It is the societies that you don't know about that you should be worried about

  • rate this

    Comment number 400.

    My Dad was once approached by a work colleague to see if he was interested in joining the Freemasons. When he came home he told my Mum. A few weeks later at a party she met the guy who'd asked my Dad and she thanked him for inviting him to join, but told him that to be honest he wasn't really interested, however she'd love to join.

  • rate this

    Comment number 399.

    If you join a secret society, there probably is something wrong with you.

  • rate this

    Comment number 398.

    I am a Freemason, have been for 25 years and have yet to witness anything that could be construed as being an organisation involved in acts of conspiracy, I think Ian and Sandy have got it spot on, with Dibbyspot way out and I mean 'way out' ........

  • rate this

    Comment number 397.

    @ 348.MrAdamo
    Depends what level you're talking about. The Blue Lodge of the lower degrees is where 99% of masons reside, having no idea there are any other lodges or degrees above them.

    Codswallop! The 3rd Degree is the HIGHEST degree and all other lodges - which are well known about - are SIDE ORDERS or specialist branches that are often Christian in nature.

  • rate this

    Comment number 396.

    @378. bdyke04 How is going to the park or the church a position of power open to abuse?

  • rate this

    Comment number 395.

    Who holds back the electric car? Who makes Steve Guttenberg a star?

    We do, we do. . .

  • rate this

    Comment number 394.

    My father is a freemason and he describes it to me as 'boy scouts for grown ups'. They have strong moral values and do a lot of work for charity but do not publicise it as they don't do it for praise or recognition. They look after each other and their families just as you would with any friends, no matter where you meet them.

  • rate this

    Comment number 393.

    I think the most telling comment in the article is that people join the Masons not because it is a community group raising money for charity but for its "snob factor". Seeing yourself as being above other people, and mixing secretly with like minded individuals who have mutual self interest is somewhat dangerous, especially where many of those people are in positions of power.

  • rate this

    Comment number 392.

    The police are riddled with them, over 26% of ALL UK police are masons (a men's only club), the ratio being much higher in the judiciary/law & intelligence agencies. When it comes to banking and high government, it's almost mandatory.

    Ever notice how these big high rollers and politicians NEVER get done for their crimes, bar the odd sacrificial lamb for the peasantry? The odd Bernie Madoff etc.

  • rate this

    Comment number 391.

    RE 348. Only 3 degrees matter in freemasonry. Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason. The others are taken 'for interest' by those wishing to know more about the history rituals of the craft, as we call it. The 33rd you refer to is awarded by invitation only after many years of recognised long service. There are very few 33rd degree masons. Masons should feel free to correct me here.

  • rate this

    Comment number 390.

    I'm certain most masons are decent people who are good to their mums. I have no problem with people forming societies, in fact the rights of assembly and association are indefeasible outside of totalinarianism.
    What I have a problem with is the uses that membership is put to, most heinously raising some people above the law of the land.
    We know it happens and denial of it insults intelligence.

  • rate this

    Comment number 389.

    327.Josephine Bennington
    14 Minutes ago
    'To THEKINGSNEWCLOTHES, Go on then, tell us a morality story from one of your rituals, from any degree. Bet you won't.'

    Space does not permit me to here, but you can either buy the scripts from Amazon OR find them online as I often do. They are based on Old Testament stories and many of the ceremonies are Christian.

  • rate this

    Comment number 388.

    Newspaper reporters and editors must have little to do if they want to attack Freemasonry yet again - how may times over the years have masons been blamed for anything / everything...yet no evidence is ever shown....grow up boys - show a bit of maturity - if you want to know JOIN a lodge - but as they will only have men of good standing, maybe you dont qualify ....

  • rate this

    Comment number 387.

    "A voluntary requirement to disclose"! Hilarious.

  • rate this

    Comment number 386.

    I am an Insolvency Practitioner and most of my firm's partners are Freemason. People who refer work to us ( accountant /solicitors) are mostly freemason. Equaly some of the directors we are suppose to investigate are "freemason" and more interestingly, quite a few District Judges in my area are freemason. You make your own mid whether it leads to corruption or not.

  • rate this

    Comment number 385.

    Dib dib dib, dob dob dob. The Boy Scouts for people who never grew up.

  • rate this

    Comment number 384.

    Interesting article..one point though....in the graphic showing a masons handshake it appears that to be a Mason you need to have 5 fingers and a thumb. Easier to spot them I suppose, thanks for the heads up.


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