Fever Pitch and the rise of middle-class football

Fans crowd around a pub to watch an England match

The publication of Nick Hornby's football memoir Fever Pitch 20 years ago is often seen as the point when middle-class interest in football began. How far has the game changed since then?

There is a school of thought that argues that watching top-flight football these days is a middle-class pastime, available only to those who can pay in advance for expensive season tickets.

For those who support that argument, one man's name often appears on the list of reasons the game has moved beyond its traditional working-class roots.

That man is Nick Hornby.

Twenty years ago, Hornby's book Fever Pitch was published to general acclaim.

It is often cited as the first intelligent football book to have mass appeal, telling of one man's lifelong obsession with Arsenal.

Fever Pitch was translated into 26 languages, sold millions of copies and was made into a major film. It is also widely viewed as having broadened the appeal of the game to the middle classes.

Monday afternoon fever

Nick Hornby (l) and John Wilson inside Highbury Square
  • Nick Hornby discusses the legacy of Fever Pitch with John Wilson, son of ex-Arsenal goalkeeper Bob, on Fever Pitched: Twenty Years On, BBC Radio 4, 16:00 GMT on Monday 5 March
  • Or catch up via iPlayer

The reality is a "bit more complicated", says Hornby. "My feeling is football changed in the 1960s, not when Fever Pitch was published - when England won the World Cup and George Best was like a pop star."

He puts interest in the book down to youngsters from this time growing up, settling into middle-class jobs while still holding on to their football allegiances.

"Nobody had ever thought to ask them about it before," he says.

Former Arsenal player Liam Brady agrees with Hornby's view that the middle classes have been going to watch top-flight football for many years. But he says that they may have been more "covert" about their interest.

"I don't believe that's true that Nick Hornby brought football to the middle classes or the broadsheets, but [he] did give them an understanding of the obsession," says Brady, who played for Arsenal until 1980.

"The people who had the best seats at Highbury when I played there were not working-class people," he continues.

Since Fever Pitch was published, the Highbury terraces that Hornby once stood on are now part of a development of luxury flats.

And for many those changes were long overdue.

Arsenal fans at the Emirates stadium The cheapest adult season ticket at Arsenal now costs £951, the most expensive £1,944.

"The 1980s were defined by poor stadiums, hooliganism and the authorities' football angst - Margaret Thatcher had a low opinion of the game and was considering introducing ID cards for all football supporters," says Phil Dorward of the Premier League.

Seminal moments

John Williams, football expert at Leicester University, agrees.

"The game seemed to stumble from crisis to crisis. There was an inverted snobbery around the sport which challenged 'outsiders' to get involved and supporters had few mechanisms to get their voice heard," he says.

The Hillsborough disaster of 1989 and the Taylor Report which followed were seminal moments, according to Williams.

"Taylor ushered in seating and provoked the first major stadium modernisation programme in 30 years. The World Cup finals of 1990 and Gazza's tears were part of a wider cultural shift, eroding the inward tendencies in the English game.

"The other key change was the formation of the Premier League in 1992, marketing the elite cubs as a different, exclusive product.

Start Quote

I think more has changed in the 20 years since I wrote the book, than happened in 100 years of professional football before that”

End Quote Nick Hornby author of Fever Pitch

"Now publicly claiming to be a middle-class football fan was no longer a social faux pas. New, more affluent older supporters were drawn in," says Williams.

The Premier League's Dorward says it is impossible to compare the socio-economic make-up of 90s football crowds with today's since the data doesn't exist.

"In the mid-80s we can say the crowd was white and male and that's about it," he says.

But far from shifting towards being a more middle-class game, Dorward believes that the changes in the match-day experience now means crowds are more diverse than ever.

"Football hasn't gentrified," says Dorward, "but the country has changed and football reflects that.

"We now have women making up 23% of crowds, 11% from black and minority ethnic groups and 13% of Premier League season ticket holders were under 16 last season."

The Premier League's annual survey of 45,000 fans suggests that those attending matches are not employed in elite occupations, with 10% working in manufacturing, 8% in financial services, 8% in construction and 8% in education.

"Football has become more accepting of all sectors of society," says Dorward.

England celebrate 1966 World Cup win Did middle-class interest in football coincide with England's World Cup triumph of 1966?

But Williams feels something has been lost with the changes.

"Lots of traditional working-class fans have stopped attending. The market is said to decide ticket prices, but it also excludes many poorer fans."

But Dorward disputes the view that many fans are now priced out.

"Lots of fans buy their tickets on good deals, not the £50 tickets you read about. Wigan Athletic recently had two tickets for £25, the last three home matches at Blackburn last season were £20 together.

"The clubs are alive to the needs of their fans, but many fans are prepared to pay more than 20 years ago for a better, safer experience.

"The £100 Arsenal tickets you read about are the exception," says Dorward.

Dividing line

For Hornby, it was the cheap, available tickets that helped create and feed his addiction. But he questions whether this is still possible.

"The thing about the really cheap prices, being able to decide on the day whether you went or not, is that it creates an addiction," he says.

"We made up our mind whether to go on Saturday lunchtime. You can't do that any more. Most kids see live football, like theatre, as a treat three or four times a year.

"Whether in 20 years' time those kids will still want to go, feels as though it will be different."

Hornby now sees the publication of Fever Pitch as a dividing line between the old game and the global product of today.

"I think more has changed in the 20 years since I wrote the book than happened in 100 years of professional football before that. I couldn't have guessed the profundity of those changes."

Fever Pitched: Twenty Years On is on BBC Radio 4 at 16:00 GMT on Monday 5 March or listen again on iPlayer (UK only) using the above link.


More on This Story

In today's Magazine


This entry is now closed for comments

Jump to comments pagination
  • rate this

    Comment number 22.

    BBC, stop stirrng things and get back to actually reporting what's happening now, not what everyone's forgotten.

  • rate this

    Comment number 21.

    I genuinely wonder what football is all about. A national team that consistently underperforms for well over 40 years with an ill produced end product that is always short on quality. I'm absolutely dumb struck why anyone would want to spend £50 for 90 mins watching a bunch of "also-rans" kick a puff of wind around to channel spectators hard earned cash to greedy 'players' and boardrooms execs.

  • rate this

    Comment number 20.

    Every sport became "middle class" whenever some businessman realised he could make loads of money and charge people through the nose.

    I've been to Highbury and the Emirates, last time i went there was 4 women in front of me reading hello magazine.

    They have money, but no interest in football. Same as the businessman.

  • rate this

    Comment number 19.

    Imagine how much cheaper it could be if the top clubs weren't paying their footballers more per week than many in the crowd earn per year. Are they really worth that much?

  • rate this

    Comment number 18.

    I have never stopped going to watch my team across those 20 years. The game is no better on field.On the terraces its a bit of nightmare now. There is very little violence thankfully but you cant smoke,there are rules about everything,when you can stand,what you can say and so on and 'refreshments' are extortionate.I prefered the old days on balance.

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.

    I think football is retarded but now its becoming interesting with footballer's orgies and adultery which explains the attraction of middle classes.

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    Until we get rid of Murdoch/Sky then the game will continue to splash money about to these ill diciplined and frankly quite nasty players who have ruined what was a great family sport many years ago. You can see it creeping into Rugby ever since they went professional.

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    This is a further symptom of how GB is being overrun by popular culture, with the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer. and people not caring what they spend on what they want regardless of how much debt they incur. Unhealthy attitudes encouraged by successive governments and self interested bankers. Sorry state of affairs not boding well for the future of our once great nation.

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.


    I think that's the first time I've ever heard Formula 1 referred to as a "working-class" sport. I hear that the Monaco GP is packed out with spectators from down t'mill.

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    The class bigotry here is appalling.
    I think it's less to do with the middle-class becoming football fans and more to do with social climbing. Many families who were working class 40 years ago have since moved up in the world and become 'middle-class'.
    People don't have to stay working class all their lives you know.

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    Oh you must be joking ! Fifty plus quid to watch a few blokes kicking a bag of wind about for 90 minutes ? The cost of travel to the venue ? Cold and wet conditons at the ground ? Lousy botulism burgers ? Filthy toilets ? Not for me thank you .

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    @ 6.Sandy Harlestone-Smith
    I would be hard pressed to consider myself anything other than working class, but i'm also on a day off, hence the time to read and comment.

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    One of the best parts for me is the 'friendly' banter between fans. I think the influx of middle-class families going has tempered the old mob-mentality. As a female fan I would have been too scared to go even a few years ago (still avoid a few places).
    Saying that I hate it when the stadium is all quiet - I go to sing and jump about not just sit and watch.

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    I thought the whole of the UK are middle class now ?

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    It seems to be straining a point somewhat to suggest that adultery, racism, thuggery, and gang rape are today middle-class pursuits.

    Or are we to take it that the middle-class audience is watching all this with lofty detachment, like the elegant ladies and gentlemen in the final scene of Kubrik's "A Clockwork Orange"?

  • rate this

    Comment number 7.

    It was always going to be a slippery slope when a Kettering Town fan comes out as a Manchester Red enjoying a higher class of prawn sarnie!

    Great article. The game's awash with money, we are starting to see gates fall outside of the top few, leading to some call for wage cuts to bring a sense of reality back to the beautiful game. Taking it back towards its roots,and more affordable.

  • rate this

    Comment number 6.

    Supply and Demand. It’s the ONLY thing price cares about.

    Middle class as opposed to working class is an anachronism. Even white collar v. blue collar has lost much of its distinction.

    Safe to say anyone commenting on this topic on the BBC HYS section has sufficient time and facility to consider themselves NOT working class.

  • rate this

    Comment number 5.

    Fifty quid for ninety minutes of dubious entertainment. Nah. I'd rather spend my money on something more worthwhile. Preferably on something that hasn't become a byword for poor example setting. Yet again here is an example of where there is too much money at the top end, abundance of greed and vast rewards for poor performance and, like most things on the high street - too much imported stuff.

  • rate this

    Comment number 4.

    Yes, the quality of footbal support has much improved from working class to lower middle, largely driven by increased costs and improved toilet facilities at most grounds. To further improve the quaity of supporter (up to mid midlle class?) will however need some further changes. I suggest replacing pies with quiche, changing football chants for half time carol singing, wearing collar and ties...

  • rate this

    Comment number 3.

    Football isn't the only sport to be ruined by the middle class pushing the ticket prices up.

    Motorsport, especially top level national and international events like the BTCC and F1 (you do remember that one don't you BBC?) have become less and less affordable to the working class.

    If one were a conspiracy theorist one could say there is a conspiracy to stop the working classes having any fun...


Page 7 of 8



BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read more.

This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.