Is slow TV taking over the airwaves?


The return of Danish drama The Killing to television screens is the latest evidence of a shift towards long and glacially paced, small-screen drama. So why has slow TV taken off?

It's hardly The Sweeney. Car chases and explosions are thin on the ground. Sensational weekly denouements and wild plot twists are conspicuous by their absence.

The Killing's gradual, deliberate pacing seems to flout the conventions of the prime-time television crime thriller - a feature that puts it in company with other, similarly unhurried recent hit programmes.

Brooding, Pinter-esque pauses abound and violence, when it occurs, is downplayed. Dark, rainswept settings frame a mood of near-endless gloom. In its first series, the investigation of a single murder is played out over 20 hour-long episodes.

Returning for a second series on BBC Four, the abiding characteristic of the programme is its slowness. But it's not "slow" in the normally derogatory sense, but rather slow in the sense of crescendoing. It's proved a global hit and has already earned a US remake.

There are plenty of US shows that now adhere to the "slow TV" template. The Killing was preceded by Mad Men, a series whose lack of velocity makes the Danish thriller look like Walker, Texas Ranger.

Start Quote

The box set is slowly revolutionising the way we watch TV -audiences are choosing to watch in their own time”

End Quote Abi Morgan Screenwriter

In Matthew Weiner's 1960s-set serial - shown in the US on AMC and about to be a flagship series for the UK's Sky Atlantic - the focus is firmly on tone, mood and character development at the expense of plot-points. Entire episodes pass by in which relationships may subtly alter and themes of identity, alienation and social change be explored, but very little actually happens.

The widely hailed novelistic style of HBO's The Wire saw story arcs rise and fall across series. Though the Baltimore-set crime drama may have had its fair share of action, eventually, writer David Simon's follow-up, Treme, about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, was profoundly slow-paced.

Such is the influence of this kind of drama that the Mail on Sunday ran an article criticising ITV1's flagship Sunday evening costume drama, Downton Abbey, for apparently unwelcome "breakneck" pace in the second series.

Slow-tempo TV is hardly new, of course. Series like the 26-part Forsyte Saga and the TV version of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy unfolded gradually. Granada Television's classic 1980s dramas Brideshead Revisited and The Jewel in the Crown spread out over 11 and 13 hours respectively.

And two decades ago international audiences embraced Twin Peaks in huge numbers despite its lack of urgency in revealing Laura Palmer's murderer.

But what distinguishes the current incarnation of slow TV is that it flies in the face of conventional wisdom about modern audiences demanding immediacy, their attention spans sapped by the ever-moving online era.

Scene from The Killing The Killing is unashamedly long and slow

Instead, it appears that a significant proportion of the viewing public have responded to the instant gratification culture given expression by Twitter and YouTube by demanding quite the opposite.

Indeed, for screenwriter Abi Morgan, who wrote the BBC's The Hour and the forthcoming Margaret Thatcher biopic The Iron Lady, the current popularity of slow TV is itself driven by technological development.

"The box set is slowly revolutionising the way we watch TV," she says. "Audiences are choosing to watch in their own time. That really allows us to appreciate these long-running shows."

Slow TV contenders

  • The Killing (Danish) - 20 episodes (2007)
  • The Forsyte Saga - 26 episodes (1967)
  • Brideshead Revisited - 11 hours over 11 episodes (1981)
  • The Jewel in the Crown - 13 hours over 14 episodes (1984)
  • The Wire series 1 - 13 episodes (2002)

Certainly, fans of such shows frequently compare the viewing experience to that of reading a book, with The Wire's creators in particular claiming to have consciously framed their stories using literary rather than televisual plot structures.

As such, the pace of slow TV invites viewers to actively engage with the programme, rather than their normal treatment as passive, argues Dr Amy Holdsworth, lecturer in film and television studies at the University of Glasgow and an expert in small-screen history.

"Part of the appeal is working things out for yourself," Dr Holdsworth adds. "They allow the space for viewers to invest in them and make connections for themselves.

"These days there is definitely more of an appreciation of what you can do with TV as a form - you can have so much more character depth in 80 hours than you can in a two-hour film."

Nonetheless, the format has not always proved popular. US subscription channel HBO's atmosphere-driven serial In Treatment received relatively modest ratings, while AMC's atmospheric espionage slow-burner Rubicon was cancelled by the network.

Forsyte Saga The Forsyte Saga reportedly led to empty pubs and churches on Sunday nights

One reason for this, suggests Boyd Hilton, TV editor with Heat magazine, is that making such a programme successfully is hugely difficult to execute, requiring skill and technique to hold the audience's attention.

As such, he questions whether the better-faring examples of the genre really are as slow as we think they are.

"I'd dispute whether they are really glacial," he says. "With The Killing, there's a crime in the first episode and it plays out like a crime thriller, albeit with a dense storyline and dense characters - every single scene imparts the story or the characters in some way.

"It doesn't always work. I found the second series of The Wire, the one set in the docks, quite boring, because I wasn't really interested in that world."

Start Quote

People use it as a pejorative term, but the Sopranos is essentially using the form of soap opera”

End Quote Dr Amy Holdsworth Lecturer in film and television studies

Fans may differ about which aspects of their favourite slow TV shows work and which don't - fuelling a mini-industry of discussion forums and blogs.

But at least part of these programmes' appeal, Hilton adds, is the knowledge that one is consuming a work of art rather than a mere TV thriller or crime drama.

"There are some, but not all, who would take great pride in the fact they are watching something more multi-layered and nourishing than the supposedly lowest common denominator stuff that's out there," he says.

True, no-one could confuse Mad Men's delicately crafted Carousel scene - in which anti-hero Don Draper's advertising pitch to a group of slide projector executives reveals at once the protagonist's cynicism, inner anguish and lack of any kind of fixed identity - with an episode of the X Factor.

But the pacing of such a programme, it could be argued, owes much to another genre of popular entertainment.

With their immersive settings, long-running plotlines and characters who interact with each other over years rather than hours, slow TV shows could owe more to the likes of Coronation Street and EastEnders, Dr Holdsworth suggests, than many of the former's viewers might care to admit.

I, Claudius The life of Claudius would be hard to shoehorn into six episodes

"In terms of a long-running serial with a narrative arc, I would argue that soap opera has been doing it for a long time," she says.

"People use it as a pejorative term, but the Sopranos is essentially using the form of soap opera."

For all that the likes of Mad Men have been enthusiastically reviewed and received in the UK, however, the country is yet to produce similar long-running slow TV of its own for the 21st Century. While such dramas as Stephen Poliakoff's Shooting the Past may have been slow to unfold, it lasted three episodes, compared with The Killing's 20.

Indeed, while it is common for US cable drama series to be commissioned in 12-14-episode blocks, the norm in the UK is still much shorter runs.

Morgan believes the British TV industry currently lacks the capacity for such long-form entertainment. But she is confident that the appetite is there - among viewers, dramatists and critics alike.

"American writers are executive producers on shows they originate. We don't have that infrastructure," she says.

"But what's interesting about The Killing is that it's a northern European show. I predict it will happen here in the next few years - I think there's the ambition to do that."

If so, it will represent a slow-burning drama of its own. Perhaps the makers of Downton Abbey will take heed.


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  • rate this

    Comment number 198.

    The current incarnation of Dr Who could do with going back to it's older 6 or 8 part story format. Remember epic stories like Genesis of the Daleks or the slow whodunnit of The Robots of Death? The current one off weekly stories are often paper thin and over just as they start to get interesting. Let's have more backstory, building up the suspense, and of course the classic cliffhanger endings!

  • rate this

    Comment number 197.

    Seems like much ado about nothing.

    Slow TV ... I don't remember the Wire being slow, nor would I describe Brideshead Revisited as slow.

    Seems to me that Good TV is Good TV whatever pace you think it is.

    I'm pretty sure that now the powers that be know that 'slow TV' has a demographic we'll be inundated with a whole load of rubbish.

    Concentrate upon quality, not copying, not cashing in.

  • rate this

    Comment number 196.

    this is how you should tell a story you can not do justice to a file or a telling drama with flash bang wollop action is no good for if you are to let the audience appreciate a story you must give there minds time to digest the intricacies that there are in all story lines for unless you are playing a video game and want the story told through imagery you done't need flash bang wollop action

  • rate this

    Comment number 195.

    Watch any advert / promo and count how many scenes are in it - take a 60 second trailer recently on ITV it was nearly one scene per second and the credits were milliseconds long
    Ever wondered why programmes like Heartbeat were so popular? just slow good family viewing - everyone from Granny to the Toddlers could watch without worrying it would be full of Blood and Gore or Sex.

  • rate this

    Comment number 194.

    One show. Seven series. Going approximately nowhere, Very enjoyable.
    LOST anyone ? Agree this isn't a story. There have been books , plays , radio and TV shows like this since each of these media types were invented. Plot-wise, never mint "glaciel", we're talking stationary. If its done well, its a good thing.

  • rate this

    Comment number 193.

    I couldnt agree more with the comments of bitterexperience, i too am sick and tired of jerky shots that are designed to make the viewer feel like they are part of the scene and gain their interest. Most reasonably educated viewers have a longer attention span than a Teenager, so why they used this trick on Dragon's Den a couple of series ago is beyond me?

  • rate this

    Comment number 192.

    A limp, flatulent publicity puff for BBC product. There is no story here! Soaps and long format TV has been around for ever, and nothing has changed - Boom-Boom! The only possible story is: you wouldn't favour long formats if everyone lived at Twitter-speed. However, such a premise is only possible in the tiny tiny world of journalism. Nul Points. Stop wasting the licence fee, and Shut Up.

  • rate this

    Comment number 191.

    re: 178. Elkapan
    >>>The BBC claim to be from political bias - but we know that's not true

    Oh perlease!! Every day on this very website people complain the BBC is too left, or too right, too liberal, too pro-govt, too critical of the govt. Yes, there are instances of bias, but so long as people of all stripes and none keep complaining about the BBC, it must be doing something right?

  • rate this

    Comment number 190.

    I am in Australia and I tend to watch the ABC or Special Broadcasting Service.SBS has The Killing,The Eagle and Unit One for sale in box sets (Region 4) at
    Don't complain about the tv licence,Commercial tv here in general is dire.

  • rate this

    Comment number 189.

    30 years ago we knew a lady (word may even need a capital) who had been part of the Brideshead set but did a lot of socialising and couldn't guarantee that she would be home for to watch the series. So we recorded it all (without watching it ourselves) and over 3 or 4 nights she provided us with dinner while we provided her with the videos and the player to watch them on.

  • rate this

    Comment number 188.

    People are at last tiring of the directors mantra to "cut to a different angle every 3 seconds" or worse still those deliberately jerky camera shots.

    I'll be a happy bunny if film directors forget those two tricks and consign them to history :-).

  • rate this

    Comment number 187.

    28 Minutes ago
    Are people at last catching up with slow TV? Good. Nice piece of publicity for a BBC program btw.

    How well would such drama sit on other channels that revel in displays of realtionship breakdown sponsored by Bingo companies?

    How well would it play when interrupted by 3-choice telephone quizzes?

  • rate this

    Comment number 186.

    48 Minutes ago
    Tens of thousands of single mothers in prison every year! I hope not. What programmes are they watching?

    Are they just sticking the sprogs in front of the box instead of teaching them?

    When I was a lad, my mum had only the wireless so I'd rather know how a game is displayed than how much human flesh I can pretend to smell burnt by my flamethrower.

  • rate this

    Comment number 185.

    Are people at last catching up with slow TV? Good. Nice piece of publicity for a BBC program btw.

  • rate this

    Comment number 184.

    Think more about the story and less about the length, otherwise we'll just end up with more time wasted eiher side of the scale.

  • rate this

    Comment number 183.

    Just love the 'glacially paced' bit, genius.

  • rate this

    Comment number 182.

    Thomas - I agree - The Eagle was excellent but I've not found an English subtitled/dubbed version. It's based on Homer's Odyssey as the hero, Halgrim Halgrimmson, is distracted in his attempts to make his way back to his homeland. North Light (with Lars Mikkelson from The Killing) is another good Danish series, and the German series, In the Face of Crime is well worth checking out.

  • rate this

    Comment number 181.

    The production of TV "shows" for the consumption of the "low drive" members of the poulace was presaged in Andrew Neale's Play "The Year of The Sex Olympics" on BBC TV in 1968.

  • rate this

    Comment number 180.

    The Killing worked best for me in whole evenings - 3 or 4 episodes at a time downloaded off IPlayer. Am totally addicted to drama box sets - a great invention and I'm guessing that some series will soon go straight to box set without any broadcasting (someone is now going to tell me they have...).

    But I wonder - how are the box sets of all those celebrity/reality/cooking programmes doing?

  • rate this

    Comment number 179.

    Even if you did not pay the licence fee and did not watch TV (even the stuff to direct you into believing that you needed to purchase particular products to make your life acceptable by their standards) you would still be paing for that commercial indoctrination.


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