Why is Google in love with Bletchley Park?

A worker at Bletchley Park and a Google employee The wartime discoveries at Bletchley Park (L) laid the foundations for today's Google (R)

Technology giant Google normally has its eyes fixed firmly on the future. But it has turned its attention to an old house in England to help preserve a slice of computing history.

For nearly half a century after World War II, a Victorian manor house in Buckinghamshire lay neglected and unloved, its dilapidated buildings falling into disrepair.

By the early 90s, plans even emerged to tear down the assorted boarded-up huts around the house and erect a supermarket in their place.

For reasons of national security, a veil of secrecy shrouded Bletchley Park. Only in the last 20 years has the extraordinary story of breaking the code of the German Enigma machine finally become well-known.

The secret work there had, it is believed, shortened the war by two years.

But the veil of secrecy came at a cost, not just to the physical fabric of the site, but also, some believe, to Britain and its ability to build on its achievements in computer technology.

The Bletchley Park site, in Milton Keynes, is - at least superficially - a world away from Google's headquarters in Mountain View, California, known as the Googleplex.

Bletchley's war

Bletchley Park
  • Bletchley Park was Britain's main decryption establishment during World War II
  • The Buckinghamshire compound is famous as the place where wartime codebreakers cracked the German Enigma code
  • A major contribution was made by Polish codebreakers, who achieved significant breakthroughs in the 1930s
  • Codebreaking machines Colossus and Bombe were the forerunners of modern computers. Mathematician Alan Turing helped create the Bombe
  • More than 9,000 staff worked at the Government Code and Cypher school, as Bletchley Park was known
  • Historians estimate that breakthroughs at Bletchley shortened the war by two years
  • Though the role codebreaking played in the war is now widely celebrated in films such as Enigma, Bletchley Park's role remained a secret until 1970

But a desire, driven by a few individuals, to nurture the past has led to one of the world's top technology firms taking an unusually close interest in Bletchley Park and its legacy.

Google has provided cash for the purchase of key papers and is backing the current appeal to restore the derelict Block C at Bletchley Park.

The story began a year ago when a tweet caught British-born Google cloud computing executive Simon Meacham's eye in northern California. The tweet about papers from Alan Turing - the maths genius who was key to much of the wartime codebreaking work - came from Sue Black, a London-based computing expert and longstanding campaigner for Bletchley Park.

The papers - which included work from 1936 on "computable numbers" - were up for sale and therefore in danger of being lost to Bletchley. Turing had described an automatic machine which would be able to read and manipulate symbols on a tape through algorithms.

These concepts would be put into practice in the war when the first electronic programmable computer was built at Bletchley in order to crack codes.

While codebreaking was an important application of Turing's work, what he conceived has gone on to change the world.

The work of Turing and others was a central foundation for all computing technology including the algorithms that underpin Google's internet search engine and the page-ranking technology.

"I don't think it is an exaggeration to say that without Alan Turing, Google in the form we know it would not exist," says Peter Barron, head of external relations for Google in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

Computing legacy

A restored and fully functioning Turing Bombe

By Martin Campbell-Kelly, emeritus professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Warwick who specialises in the history of computing

You cannot overstate the importance of Bletchley Park in winning the war but you can overstate its importance in the history of computing. It was a fantastic wartime success story and it did have some spin-off.

What went on at Bletchley Park and a number of American centres was the development of computers but not stored-program computers, which are general-purpose and can change tasks by changing their software programs and are the forerunner of the modern computer.

Colossus at Bletchley was a special-purpose machine. It was superb at the one task it was designed for - codebreaking.

What I think Bletchley did was create a pool of people in the UK who knew it was possible to build large electronic apparatus. Before, there was a lot of doubt as to whether it was possible to have 1,000-plus valves in an electronic machine.

It was thought that the machine would never work for more than a few minutes before a valve failure put it out of action. The Colossus demonstrated this was not true. It was a proof of concept.

Immediately after the war, teams at Cambridge, Manchester and the National Physical Laboratory started stored programme computer projects.

Maurice Wilkes and his colleagues at Cambridge created the first working machine - the Edsac (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator)

After learning of the papers, Meacham approached Google.org, the company's charitable arm and some of its vice-presidents. "I reached out across Google and I said I need $100,000 [£63,000] by Monday, please," he recalls.

Many of those working at the company were already well informed about Turing and Bletchley, and Meacham had raised his $100,000 by the end of the weekend.

The papers were eventually purchased using money raised by journalist Gareth Halfacree, who has been campaigning for some time, Google, the National Heritage Memorial Fund, and private donors.

The relationship that began over the papers has now deepened. Google allows staff to spend up to 20% of their time on projects that interest them but which are not formally part of their jobs.

Meacham has used his to continue working on Bletchley Park. Google is now heavily involved with the fundraising for renovation of Block C where intelligence was catalogued - a task which will cost around £2m.

The drive started with a garden party attended by, among others, Lorna Rooke, a YouTube employee, and her grandmother Jean Valentine who had worked at Bletchley during the war.

Although parts of Bletchley have now been preserved, many of the huts are boarded up, the rooms inside dusty and empty.

The secrecy of the war was central to Bletchley's success but also undermined its legacy. One of the reasons Turing's papers were so valuable is that many of the records of Bletchley were deliberately destroyed after the war.

The decision was made to maintain secrecy so other codes could continue to be broken using the technology and techniques. Turing's own story also did not end happily. He killed himself after being convicted of having a sexual relationship with another man and forced to undergo a form of hormone treatment.

The work of others like the engineer Tommy Flowers, who helped build the first programmable computer at Bletchley, named Colossus, was also left unacknowledged.

Colossus itself was smashed into pieces on the orders of Churchill. The fact that the first electronic programmable computer had been built in Britain was hushed up.

The veil of secrecy that was cast over Bletchley led not just to the decay of the site but also meant an opportunity was lost for Britain's computer industry, Meacham believes.

An Enigma coding machine that was used by the Germans in WWII An Enigma coding machine on display at Bletchley Park

He had grown up in England as the era of the personal computer revolution was just picking up pace. But he had found that to be at the cutting edge of new developments, he had to move to the US, commuting from the UK to work at Microsoft during his university holidays.

"There was no Silicon Valley in England," he explains. "It didn't flower into what you could imagine could have been a whole ecosystem around Bletchley with a science park. I had to go elsewhere as it wasn't there."

Meacham and others at the company emphasise that Google is not trying to muscle in on Bletchley's legacy; instead, they want to see an industry-wide effort to support it because of its special place in computing history.

Bletchley offers a chance to build something broad, argues Meacham.

"Wouldn't it be great if there was a hub for computing activity in the UK that was built around where the entire industry started?"

The future is now looking rosier for Bletchley Park. In October, the Heritage Lottery Fund announced that it would receive a £4.6m grant. The Queen also visited earlier in the year to open a memorial to those who had served there.

The hope for Meacham and others is that Bletchley might prove an inspiration for a new generation of computer enthusiasts placing it once again at the cutting edge of computer technology, restoring a legacy that, like the site itself, was nearly lost.


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  • rate this

    Comment number 266.

    Splendid achievements of Tommy Flowers and Alan Turing led to Colossus. No doubt about it. But we must say here their success could not be possible without advice and instruction given to BP from PC Bruno in France and at the BP station by the Polish Enigma code breakers: Rozycki (invented clock method), Rejewski (card catalog, cyclometer, Polish cryptologic bomb), Zagalski (perforated sheets).

  • rate this

    Comment number 265.

    @263. sausage roll. The basic Enigma design was the same, but the complexity was orders of magnitude different because there were 4/5 rotors in use, and 8 to choose from. Further, the operational weakness that was the key to the Polish analysis was changed in 1937, making their code breaking method useless. Please, read the Wiki article (http://bit.ly/T6Vsp) before posting any more nonsense.

  • rate this

    Comment number 264.

    2 points

    1) Credit should be given where credit is due. The Polish people definitely deserve some.

    2) A lot of the advancement in cracking the code was due to sloppy security procedures and captured code tables.

  • rate this

    Comment number 263.

    Response to comment 247 from Silent Majority.
    The coding methodology used in later models was the same as in earlier versions, therefore much easier to resolve.

  • rate this

    Comment number 262.

    258.Robert Lucien
    Disgusting spending £ 9-10 billion on a sporting event .... Or the £35-60 billion train track- enough to fund a simple manned Mars mission. - eg http://epetitions.direct.gov.uk/petitions/16427

    Perhaps the present Railway organisations could make use of the British Railways Board's patent application (GB 1 310 990, filed 10/3/1972) for a "SPACE HEHICLE".

  • rate this

    Comment number 261.

    Homosexuality back then was not accepted by society. It was thought if you were gay and an enemy found out, you could then be blackmailed. Right or wrong, that's the main reason militaries banned gays, not your stereotypical soldiers worried about other soldiers making the moves on them in foxholes. Turing was also a victim of these same policies and not distained for being "smart".

  • rate this

    Comment number 260.

    Mongomery would fall back and fall back until Romel reported (and Bletchley broke) that he was low on fuel and then Monty would attack. As the Germans fell back, they would run out of fuel and have to abandon their tanks. German subs added a 4th wheel to Enigma, and the summer of '42 had record shipping losses for 6 months, until Bletchley figured it out and broke the 4 wheel codes.

  • rate this

    Comment number 259.

    Worth pointing out that Bletchley Park was not neglected for half a century. It was in fact a Post Office training establishment, laterly BT, until the 90's.

  • rate this

    Comment number 258.

    #242 Frank Lund, #234 Dr_John_B

    '#29 great post and spot on. The UK has dislike for clever people, and a ..'

    'SCIENTIFIC OLYMPICS is what we need.'

    Disgusting spending £ 9-10 billion on a sporting event - a figure in the same ballpark as sending men to the moon. Or the £35-60 billion train track- enough to fund a simple manned Mars mission. - eg http://epetitions.direct.gov.uk/petitions/16427

  • rate this

    Comment number 257.

    Comment number 238. Frank Lund
    2 Hours ago

    Why is the decoding of Enigma so lauded but Colossus has been so largely ignored?

    I wouldn't say that Collussus has been ignored. But there is a difference. Collossus was unkown outside the security services until 1976 but Engima was public knoledge before WWII even started having its origins back in the 1920s.

  • rate this

    Comment number 256.

    Comment number 243. BJD Man
    1 Hour ago

    Is this the same Alan Turing who was hounded by the Security Services because he was gay, forcibly castrated and then took his own life in 1954 ?

    No, he was hounded the the Police becsue at the time it was a crimminal offence to indulge in Homosexual Activity. It has never been illegal in Britain to be Gay.

  • rate this

    Comment number 255.

    44. sausage roll
    1 Hour ago

    The fact is that Polish code breakers managed to break enigma codes and have even build a replica of the machine in the 30’s!

    So what you are saying is that in 1939 Britain had all the information they needed to read Germany's encrypted messages thank to the Poles. If you think that you have not the slightest idea of the problems that had to be overcome.

  • rate this

    Comment number 254.

    Folks there is a BIG difference in the words Polish and polish!
    Maybe the Polish used polish to clean up their act?

  • rate this

    Comment number 253.

    13 Minutes ago
    Oh today I came to know about the polish mathematicians efforts in breaking enigma code or at least serving as a foundation. Being a follower of only BBC, it was a point never mentioned throughout, even in the latest program "Code Breakers: Bletchley Park's The Lost Heroes"

    Could that be because the electronic Colossi were the subject rather than Enigma?

  • rate this

    Comment number 252.

    249.nieuw divil
    4 Minutes ago
    246 The British knew that genius often comes in the shape of an oddball or misfit and were happy to use these people for their talents.

    Is there a parallel in the way that the wheels of German trains on GB tracks run precisely and load their middles where others "hunt" a little and distribute the wear?

  • rate this

    Comment number 251.

    Oh today I came to know about the polish mathematicians efforts in breaking enigma code or at least serving as a foundation. Being a follower of only BBC, it was a point never mentioned throughout, even in the latest program "Code Breakers: Bletchley Park's The Lost Heroes"

  • rate this

    Comment number 250.

    Frank Lund. The best references I have noted are in the biography of Turing, called The Enigma, and a popular explanation of the critical role of Polish maths in the 1930's comes from The Code Book (by Simon Singh).

  • rate this

    Comment number 249.

    246 Actually though it was Germany's persecution of intellectual stars - who often did not fit into their notion of the Aryan super man which meant that their own code breaking operations were not successful.

    The British knew that genius often comes in the shape of an oddball or misfit and were happy to use these people for their talents.

    Hitler on the other hand just wanted blond himbos.

  • rate this

    Comment number 248.

    244.sausage roll
    26 Minutes ago
    The fact is that Polish code breakers managed to break enigma codes and have even build a replica of the machine in the 30’s

    Patenting a machine such as Enigma puts its details into the public domain, thereby easing that task

  • rate this

    Comment number 247.

    @244.sausage roll. Have you read any of the other comments here? The Polish cracked an earlier, simpler version of the machine using flawed operating procedures, and did so after they were give a set of keys and coded/plaintext messages by a spy. The work at Bletchley built on that, but for a much more complex machine with vastly improved operating procedures. It's not a PR issue.


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