Thankful villages: The places where everyone came back from the wars

 
Soldiers celebrating the armistice

The mass slaughter of 1914-18 robbed the UK of a million lives, leaving no part of the country untouched. But there was a tiny handful of settlements where all those who served returned home.

With its rows of ramshackle yellow stone cottages, set amid undulating Cotswold hills, the village of Upper Slaughter belies the violence of its name.

In hazy autumn sunlight, this corner of Gloucestershire might well have been rendered in watercolour. All the components of tourist-brochure Britain are here - the red phone box, the winding lanes, the wisteria draped around the windows.

But one normally ubiquitous feature is missing. Unlike the overwhelming majority of British settlements, Upper Slaughter has no war memorial.

Instead, tucked away in the village hall are two modest wooden plaques. They celebrate the men, and one woman, from the village who served in both world wars and, in every case, returned home.

For it is not only its postcard charm that offers pacific contrast to the name Upper Slaughter. It is that rarest of British locations, a "thankful village" - the term coined in the 1930s by the writer Arthur Mee to describe the handful of communities which suffered no military fatalities in World War I.

Hugh Schofield visits France's doubly thankful village - Thierville in Normandy

Mee identified 32 such places, a figure that has been revised upwards in recent years to 52. Of these, just 14 have, like Upper Slaughter, come to be known as doubly thankful - also losing no-one from WWII.

Somehow, these rare outposts - as disparate and evocative-sounding as Nether Kellet, Lancashire; Woolley, Somerset; and Herbrandston, Pembrokeshire - were shielded from the worst ravages of the first half of the 20th Century. Some of those they sent to fight may have returned home badly injured or deeply traumatised, but all came back alive.

The scale of their good fortune is extraordinary. A million British lives were lost from 1914-18 in Europe's first experience of industrialised, total warfare. No Scottish community appears to have been left unscathed, and no thankful villages have been identified in Ireland, all of which was still part of the UK during WWI. In England and Wales, the 52 so far singled out are dwarfed by over 16,000 which paid the highest sacrifice.

In terms of the UK's collective memory of 1914-18, they represent a striking anomaly. Through history lessons, war poetry and popular culture, the abiding modern portrayal of WWI is as a devastating event of industrial-scale carnage.

Upper Slaughter Upper Slaughter has no war memorial at its heart

And yet this handful of communities, whose sons emerged alive from the horrors of the trenches, offers a unique insight into the experience which shattered the pre-WWI order and, in turn, transformed society irrevocably.

One man who understands this is Tony Collett, an energetic 80-year-old who has lived and worked in and around Upper Slaughter all his life. Tony was too young to have served in either world war. But after WWII he hand-painted the lettering on the plaque celebrating the 36 men from the village who came home safely.

Standing in the village hall, he looks up, pauses, and places a hand on the wooden sign, before telling its story.

It was erected in 1946 alongside a similar marker put up to give thanks for the 24 men and one woman of Upper Slaughter who returned in 1918. Both the WWI and WWII versions included the name of Tony's father, Francis George Collett, the village's resident handyman, universally known by his middle name. Born in 1895, George had the rare distinction of serving in two world wars.

Tony Collett Tony Collett points out his father's name on the plaque he hand-painted in 1946

After enlisting at the age of 19, he was sent to Mesopotamia, now Iraq, where 92,000 of the 410,000 Commonwealth troops died. As a member of the Territorial Army, Sgt Collett was one of the first to be called up in 1939, coming under fire before long as an anti-aircraft gunner with the Royal Artillery on the home front.

But it was not only those in uniform like George whose lives were at risk. On 4 February 1944, Upper Slaughter faced an attack from the sky, with incendiary bombs raining down on the village.

"I saw it through the skylight," recalls Tony, who was 14 at the time and sharing a room with his sister. "The first thing we did was dive down under the blankets.

"We came out and saw all these flames. We were dodging fires all the way down the road."

It was 05:30 GMT, and the village was burning. Several cottages and barns had been hit. But the people of the village quickly assembled, gathering water and sand to douse the flames. Though the damage was severe, Upper Slaughter's luck held - no-one was killed.

In 1946, it seemed natural to put up another plaque. The village hall had been acquired by the local Witts family after WWI to mark the armistice. Newly demobilised George, the village's odd-job man, church sexton and occasional undertaker, was given the task of creating a second marker to give thanks for the men who had just come back.

George Collett George Collett (left), pictured in 1937, served in two world wars

With his son assisting, George carved the wooden plaque, styling it to match that from 1914-18. Tony then carefully painted the 36 fortunate names.

Another sign, on the other side of the hall, was fashioned from brass to commemorate the "distinguished conduct and promptitude" shown by Upper Slaughter's residents on the night of the incendiary bomb raid.

Every time they passed the building, the people of the village were reminded of their incredible luck. And yet amid the wreckage of make-do-and-mend austerity Britain, with so many communities shattered and families destroyed, it felt unseemly to discuss this.

After all, during the first half of the 20th Century, Upper Slaughter was very much the exception. While people in this corner of the Cotswolds were quietly grateful for what they had escaped, the vast majority of their compatriots were adjusting to the most profound of losses.

For every village like Upper Slaughter there was another like Wadhurst, East Sussex - a place of just over 3,500 people which lost 149 men in WWI, according to research by the historian Paul Reed, author of Great War Lives.

On a single day in 1915 at the Battle of Aubers, 25 men from Wadhurst were killed - just under 80% of all those who went forward into no-man's land, and almost certainly the heaviest per capita casualties of any community in the UK for one day's battle. The majority of the fallen had no known grave.

Indeed, according to the WWI historian Dan Snow, it was often small communities, villages and hamlets in which the psychological burden of the carnage's aftermath was most painfully felt.

Start Quote

Dan Snow

It was a war that touched everybody in the British Isles”

End Quote Dan Snow Historian

Largely to blame for this, Snow believes, was the system of Pals Battalions - units of friends, work colleagues and relatives who had been promised they could fight alongside each other when they enlisted amid the patriotic fervour of 1914.

The battalions were a useful recruiting tool for War Secretary Lord Kitchener, who believed that mobilising large numbers of enthusiastic recruits quickly was the best method of winning the war.

But the reality of the trenches, where thousands of men could be wiped out in a single day, meant that small communities could face disproportionate levels of bloodshed within a matter of hours.

Of about 700 "pals" from Accrington, Lancashire who participated in the Somme offensive, some 235 were killed and 350 wounded within just 20 minutes. By the end of the first hour, 1,700 men from Bradford were dead or injured. Some 93 of the approximately 175 Chorley men who went over the top at the same time died.

It was a pattern repeated many times - and on each occasion, a town or village was deeply wounded, instantly. The "pals" system was phased out in 1917, but not before it left an indelible mark on the British consciousness.

"They had to stop that practice because it was so unbelievably destructive," says Snow, whose great-grandfather Sir Thomas D'Oyly Snow was a general at the Somme.

"When you let brothers serve together, it can be devastating for a whole community. It was a war that touched everybody in the British Isles. That's what total war means."

British troops at the Battle of the Somme, 1916 The enormous toll of battles like the Somme transformed the UK, many historians argue

The UK may have lost 2.2% of its population, but in other belligerent nations the toll was even higher. France lost 1.4 million, some 4.3% of its citizens.

The French equivalent of a thankful village is even more extraordinary. Thierville in Normandy has not lost any service personnel in France's last five wars - the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, World Wars I and II, Indochina, and Algeria.

Of course, even those in the thankful villages in the UK did not escape the hardships and disruption imposed by total war. By 1918, rationing was in force and everywhere on the home front would take many years to recover.

Likewise, the fortunate veterans who made it home alive were scarcely unscathed. Many were permanently damaged by their experiences, whether physically or mentally. By the end of WWI, the Army had dealt with 80,000 cases of "shell shock" - psychological trauma caused by war experiences.

"Soldiers can return, but it might be with their bodies or their psyches scarred," says Peter Englund, author of The Beauty And The Sorrow: An Intimate History of the First World War.

Nonetheless, given the scale of the losses, and the fact that virtually no family was left intact, it is scarcely surprising that the notion of thankful villages proved comforting to a British public which was still reeling from the war long after the armistice.

Analysis

With 1.4 million dead or missing, France's male population was literally decimated in World War I. By the early 1920s thousands of memorials had been erected - the famous Monuments aux Morts with their long rolls of war-dead.

Just about all of France's 36,000 communes have their own Monument aux Morts. Many are a simple obelisk, crowned by a French cock or a palm frond representing victory. Others include pieces of statuary, much of it mass-produced so that the same representations of soldiery can be seen in many different villages.

In fact there are also a handful of places without a memorial. Sometimes this is because two or more neighbouring communes - with limited resources - agreed to share a single monument. But in a few very rare cases, it is because all the soldiers came back home.

Thierville - a tiny village in Normandy - is one such place. In some reference books, it is erroneously listed as the only commune where all the soldiers returned from the Great War. That is incorrect. What is true is that Thierville has not suffered a single fatality in any of France's last five wars - the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, World Wars I and II, Indochina, and Algeria. And on that score it is unique.

The pattern was set in 1870, when a local man called Baptiste Saillot was one of only a few survivors from a famous cavalry charge at the Battle of Reichshofen in north-east France. He returned to Thierville and lived until 1933.

Until recently, local people would assemble at Saillot's grave on Armistice Day - for want of a Monument aux Morts on which to lay a wreathe. But in 2009, the mayor erected a small plaque to honour the village's fighters and Resistance members. And this is now where they gather.

The phrase was first used by Mee - a celebrated writer and journalist best known for his 1908 Children's Encyclopaedia - in The King's England, a 1930s series of books offering a guide to each of England's counties.

By this time, a war memorial was a feature of virtually every settlement in the country. Mee was struck by the tiny proportion that did not have one, and the notion of the thankful villages was born.

In an interwar Britain convulsed by a fresh set of shocks - the great depression, mass unemployment, the rise of fascism in Europe - it's hardly surprising that readers looked on such places as a nostalgic reminder of an apparently simpler time before August 1914.

Mee appears to have understood this, his prose on the subject assuming a wistful tone. "Thirty men went from Catwick to the Great War and thirty came back, though one left an arm behind," he wrote of one village in a volume on the East Riding of Yorkshire.

And yet somewhere along the way, in the slipstream of a second global conflict, the notion slipped from the public consciousness - even in places like Catwick.

Though it never had a war memorial, the windswept village had a commemoration of its own. At the outset of WWI, the village blacksmith, John Hugill, nailed a lucky horseshoe to the door of his forge. Around it, for each man who went to the war, he nailed a coin. When WWII broke out, he did the same again.

As Catwick was to prove doubly thankful, it was a remarkable monument. And yet when Hugill's workshop closed, the coins and the horseshoe were taken away from the door.

All were fixed to a board and eventually passed onto Hugill's grandson, now 60 and also called John Hugill, who still lives in Catwick, where he runs an engineering firm.

He has vowed never to let the memento leave the village and hopes to find a way to put it on public display. Hugill was too young to know his grandfather, while his father - who served as a Sergeant-at-Arms in the Home Guard during WWII - was reluctant to speak about his wartime experiences.

"All they wanted to do was forget it," Hugill says.

"When they're gone, you think, 'Why didn't we talk to each other about it?' But there was a big age gap - there'd been such a huge change in culture."

John Hugill (photo courtesy of John Hugill jnr) Catwick's blacksmith nailed a coin for every man who went to war - all returned

Tony Collett experienced something very similar. It took decades, he says, for Upper Slaughter's remarkable good fortune to be widely discussed in the village. Only in the past 10 years or so, he reckons, has this semi-superstitious reluctance to give voice to the village's special status fallen away.

Tony attributes this to the characteristic stoicism of his father's era. Whatever terrifying and extraordinary sights he may have seen in battle, George, typically for his generation, rarely spoke of them.

"It's one of these things," says Tony. "Because the war and its aftermath were all around us, you needed to just live with it and carry on with your life.

"It was only in recent years that people really started to realise there were these thankful villages. It was never spoken of in my younger days."

As the country picked itself up, Tony entered the Royal Marines for his two years' National Service. On Remembrance Day 1950 he was in uniform in Whitehall as the King laid a wreath at the Cenotaph.

After returning to civilian life in the family building firm, Tony would travel each Remembrance Sunday to the war memorial of the neighbouring village, Lower Slaughter.

As he looks out over lanes and buildings he has known all his life, Tony knows Upper Slaughter is no longer the intimate, tightly-bound community in which he grew up. The cottages are no longer within the financial reach of handymen and part-time undertakers. An influx of second-home-owning weekend residents has meant that the villagers are no longer intimately acquainted with each others' business, he says, for better or worse.

But Tony is aware that for decades the community retained a sliver of pre-WWI innocence, long after the rest of the country.

The generations who grew up after the wars, for whom the memories of the nation's loss are less raw, have proved more willing to discuss the subject. And, as a result, the past decade has witnessed a growth in awareness of thankful villages.

D-Day landings in Normandy, 1944 Just 14 villages were lucky enough to escape losses in WWII as well as WWI

Battlefield tour guide Tom Morgan, 64, had been a WWI enthusiast all his life, and dimly recalled during his boyhood reading a letter in a newspaper which referred to thankful villages.

The story had always nagged at his memory, and in the late 1990s, Morgan posted on a history internet discussion forum asking if anyone else was aware of it, to no avail. However, the post remained one of the only references to thankful villages on the internet, and years later he was contacted through the site by another amateur historian.

The two began researching the subject, and, along with another enthusiast, began producing a website identifying thankful villages. As well as investigating the places identified by Mee, the men were contacted by readers who tipped them off about other possible locations.

By the end of 2010, the number of verified thankful villages had risen to 52, but not before Morgan and his colleagues had undertaken much painstaking research, trawling through local newspapers, church records and the archives of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

Their efforts mean a hitherto neglected historical curiosity has been given additional prominence.

For Morgan, the significance of the thankful villages is their unique mindset - one denied to the rest of Britain by the million bereavements it endured in WWI. The cultural narrative of the conflict is as a series of grossly negligent betrayals of heroic young men by the era's political and military establishment, he says.

"The First World War changed society," Morgan argues. "Everybody began to have doubts about the ruling class who were running the country by accident of birth, not ability. People decided that they'd like a little bit of a say in their own destiny.

"But the thankful villages were able to just carry on. Elsewhere, whole communities may have been shattered, but here you have these magical places not bearing any mental scars."

Inexplicable patterns can be composed from the list of thankful villages - Somerset was particularly fortunate, for instance, boasting nine such communities, while neighbouring Wiltshire has none at all.

Start Quote

Whole communities may have been shattered, but here you have these magical places not bearing any mental scars”

End Quote Tom Morgan Researcher

But there seem to be few obvious reasons why some places were luckier than others. Servicemen like George Collett, risking in his life in Mesopotamia, were hardly out of harm's way. Nor were the thankful villages any less forthcoming when it came to providing volunteers. Arkholme, Lancashire, sent 59 men to fight in WWI, all of whom appear, incredibly, to have returned.

Instead, they seem merely to have been lucky. As one researcher, Rod Morris, has observed, 21 personnel from Rodney Stoke, Somerset, may have all come back intact - yet of 73 sent by neighbouring Draycott, 11 were killed. What the thankful villages tell us, if anything, is that the prospects of survival are entirely arbitrary.

They may be few in number, but it is possible that more thankful villages are out there. Several of those on Morgan's list are there purely by virtue of a casual reader's curiosity being nagged by their lack of a local war memorial.

One of those was Minting, a small outpost in Lincolnshire with a population of 167 to which former Royal Army Educational Corps officer Roy Griffiths and his wife Karen had retired.

With their shared military background - Roy served for 24 years, while Karen's father had been in the RAF - both were puzzled.

"One of the things I'd noticed about the village was that it didn't have a war memorial," Roy, 71, recalls. "I couldn't believe that Minting didn't suffer any losses in World War I, even though it's small.

"When we asked around, all we were told was that there wasn't a war memorial and that was that."

The pair set off on a trail, trawling old copies of the local newspaper and studying census and electoral roll data.

Minting had sent 10 men to WWI, it transpired, and all of them returned. In WWII, the Griffiths found that nine had fought - although one, Pte Raymond Camp of the Lincolnshire Regiment, had been killed in action in 1943. Thanks to the couple's efforts, a pair of plaques now hang in the parish church, giving thanks for the 18 men of the village who came back safely and commemorating the loss of Pte Camp.

Upper Slaughter Upper Slaughter was hit by incendiary bombs in an air raid

Wandering around Upper Slaughter, the memorial plaques may be displayed modestly inside the village hall, away from public view, but virtually every lapel carries a poppy.

And the very recent past has given Upper Slaughter yet more to be thankful for.

As British forces embarked on their first campaigns of the 21st Century, the village was once again represented. A son of Upper Slaughter, Lt Fred Keeling, completed two tours of Iraq and one of Afghanistan with the Royal Artillery. When he left the Army in 2008 after five years, the community's unbroken record of good fortune remained intact.

For his family, it was a very different experience to that of anxious parents in previous conflicts. Unlike in the 20th Century's world wars, they could take no comfort from the knowledge that virtually every other household shared their plight.

But Richard Keeling, 63, Lt Keeling's father, says Upper Slaughter never forgot about his son. Its remarkable legacy from two world wars saw to that.

"We've lived here for 20 years so we've always known the history," Richard says. "We know we're from a very special village. And we're very relieved that we haven't broken the average."

Map of Thankful villages
County (historical boundaries) WWI WWI and WWII

Buckinghamshire

Stoke Hammond

Cardiganshire

Llanfihangel-y-Creuddyn

Cornwall

Herodsfoot

Herodsfoot

Cumberland

Ousby

Derbyshire

Bradbourne

Dorset

Langton Herring

Langton Herring

Durham

Hunstanworth

Essex

Strethall

Glamorgan

Colwinston

Gloucestershire

Upper Slaughter, Coln Rogers, Little Sodbury

Upper Slaughter

Herefordshire

Middleton-on-the-Hill, Pipe Aston, Knill

Middleton-on-the-Hill, Pipe Aston

Hertfordshire

Puttenham

Kent

Knowlton

Lancashire

Arkholme, Nether Kellet

Arkholme, Nether Kellet

Leicestershire

East Norton, Saxby

Lincolnshire

Flixborough, High Toynton, Bigby, Minting

Flixborough, High Toynton

Northamptonshire

East Carlton, Woodend

Northumberland

Meldon

Nottinghamshire

Cromwell, Wigsley, Wysall, Maplebeck

Pembrokeshire

Herbrandston

Herbrandston

Rutland

Teigh

Shropshire

Harley

Somerset

Stocklinch, Woolley, Aisholt, Chantry, Chelwood, Holywell Lake, Rodney Stoke, Shapwick, Tellisford

Stocklinch, Woolley

Suffolk

South Elmham St Michael, Culpho

South Elmham St Michael

Sussex

East Wittering

Yorkshire

Catwick, Cundall, Helperthorpe, Norton-le-Clay, Scruton

Catwick

 

More on This Story

In today's Magazine

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites

Comments

This entry is now closed for comments

Jump to comments pagination
 
  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 222.

    What a fantastic piece of forgottten history. I'd heard sometime ago ( while in the RAF) of the thankful villages but could find out nothing about them. If this does not make you get a shiver down your spine then I don't know what will. The figures are incredible.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 221.

    I was surprised to see that Wiltshire does not exist when we have a very large amount of troops in the county and have lost numerous in wars over the years

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 220.

    WEAR THE POPPY WITH PRIDE TO REMEMBER THE MEN/WOMEN THAT GAVE THEIR LIVES FOR OUR FREEDOM.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 219.

    #217 ludwig - Were not the American developers of the "bomb" scientists from Germany?

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 218.

    Human beings are violent, aggressive, competitive and cruel. We are fundamentally no different from our ancestors five, ten thousand years ago. So, the armed conflict we see all round the world will go on until the human race as a whole and each individual in it has seen enough of it, has rejected it utterly as beastly and unthinkable and stops teaching its children to glorify war in any way.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 217.

    #186... Nazi Germany would never be defeated if it wasn't for Soviet army, accidentaly led by Stalin.

    Think American development of 'the bomb' would have been a knockout factor here!

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 216.

    "After enlisting at the age of 19, he was sent to Mesopotamia, now Iraq, where 92,000 of the 410,000 Commonwealth troops died."

    What on earth was there of interest in Iraq at that time?
    Oh maybe it was Oil?

    It seems we learn nothing about war and will be doomed to go on making its mistakes over and over at the hands of bloodthirsty and greedy governments.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 215.

    To 211) : There are no winners in war.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 214.

    The day my dad was born, my nana received a telegram saying that her eldest son was missing presumed dead at Arnhem. A few weeks later he turned up safe & well after being looked after by the French. Years later we learned that my mums uncle was also in the parachute regiment at Arnhem & survived. Given the great loss of life at Arnhem we're so lucky 2 family members were able to survive it.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 213.

    I'm sure that the good people from these ' lucky' places, were just as committed to the cause as anyone else. When push comes to shove, the English are as one.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 212.

    It imay be true that Over Kellet & Arkholme lost nobody in Lancashire, however. over 400 railway workers lost their lives from Carnforth in Gt War (1 mile & 5 miles away resp). Carnforth is the centre.
    Lancashire suffered - tens of thousands from Accrington and similar towns died.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 211.

    It's difficult to know who won the war, who was a hero, and who died in vain. Behind the fighting a lot of old men swap money, hatch plans, make deals ... and the businesses and politicians who profited from the bloodshed.

    When a country loses so many young people, of course we have to remember it. Along with our grief we remember, our guilt, our laziness and our stupidity.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 210.

    "It's not the reporter that won the freedom of the press, it's the soldier. It's not the politician that won our freedom, it's the soldier. It's not the union leader that won our right of assembly, it's the soldier. "

    Tell that to the Tolpuddle martyrs or the massacred at Peterloo. Soldiers have defended our freedoms, but they have rarely created them.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 209.

    @ 208 Bonnie7362 : Totally Agree. Well Said.

  • rate this
    +5

    Comment number 208.

    We don't have to wear a poppy, it's true. A Canadian website said:
    It's not the reporter that won the freedom of the press, it's the soldier. It's not the politician that won our freedom, it's the soldier. It's not the union leader that won our right of assembly, it's the soldier. We owe our freedoms to the service men & women who serve under the flag and come home with their coffins draped in it.

  • rate this
    +4

    Comment number 207.

    194 Stuart MCFC

    Couldn't agree more. Remembrance is being hijacked by "poppy fascists" who equate failure to wear a poppy from mid-September onwards as a sign of disrespect for our war dead.

    War has had a big impact on our family in the form of injuries and lifelong mental illness. I don't need some tabloid journalist to remind me of that!

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 206.

    An interesting article. However, "the fact that virtually no family was left intact" may be true if you include third cousins or whatever, but for a narrower family definition there must be many where most or all just missed out by being too young or too old to fight. As to the Somerset and Wiltshire comparison, remember that many regiments were county based; some would see heavier action, maybe?

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 205.

    The village of Cayton near Scarborough in Yorkshire was thankful twice over, escaping World War II casualty-free as well.
    The village sent 45 men to the First World War, and 60 to the Second. There was not a single fatality amongst the combined 105 men with only one soldier suffering a serious injury in World War I. My dad was one of them in 1945, otherwise I wouldn't be here!

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 204.

    "54. Andrew: In terms of percentages Russia lost a massive 60 % of their men in WW 2 where as British losses were 3 % of their total."
    Andrew you seem to forget that the USSR invaded Poland only a few days after Germany did, they were just as guilty of starting the war as the Germans were. I'm sorry for their dead, as for all war dead, but this fact remains.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 203.

    Happy memories of the Cotswolds! I lived 2 miles from Upper Slaughter and attended the primary school there from 1960 to 1966. The school, now a private house, is located on the other side of the road from the house shown in your photo with the telephone kiosk. The air raid on 4 February 1944, when hundreds of incendiaries were dropped, was probably meant for nearby RAF Little Rissington.

 

Page 1 of 12

 

Features

BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read more.

This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.