Hunger strikes: What can they achieve?

Anna Hazare Anna Hazare was about to start a new hunger strike

A well-known Indian activist has been arrested ahead of a planned hunger strike in protest against a new anti-corruption law. But how effective is a hunger strike as a political statement?

Hunger strikes have been staged for political reasons throughout history.

One of the first recorded is in ancient Indian scriptures, which talk of the brother of the exiled King Rama using the threat of a fast to coax him into returning. He placed himself on a bundle of sacred grass at his feet and refused to budge.

On this occasion the "hunger strike" failed. But the concept persisted - indeed, in pre-Christian Ireland, it was part of the legal system. If a man felt wronged by you and starved himself to death on your doorstep, you had to bear the burden of his debts.

Unlike other protests, a hunger strike has no direct effect on the intended target. The protester suffers, not the person protested against. The protester relies on the moral force of their actions, or the publicity value, to achieve something.

The idea of hunger as political protest has experienced a renaissance in the recent past, says Prof Sharman Apt Russell, author of Hunger: An Unnatural History.

It was revived by the suffragettes in the UK at the beginning of the 20th Century. In July 1909, when a doctor asked jailed suffragette Marion Wallace-Dunlop what she would eat for dinner, she replied in defiance: "My determination."

Famous hunger strikers

Mahatma Gandhi in 1941
  • Marion Wallace-Dunlop - the first suffragette to go on hunger strike in 1909. She was released from Holloway prison after 91 hours of fasting
  • Mahatma Gandhi - the modern-day pioneer of civil disobedience went on several hunger strikes and fasts to protest against British rule in India
  • Cesar Chavez - Mexican American union leader who helped improve wages for farm workers. He staged several fasts, the first of which was for 25 days in 1968
  • Bobby Sands - the first of 10 republicans to die in the Maze prison in Northern Ireland in 1981. They were seeking the reinstatement of political prisoner status
  • Mia Farrow - the actress and activist began a hunger strike to protest against the conflict in Darfur in 2009

Gandhi is arguably the most famous hunger striker in history. Republican prisoners in Northern Ireland highlighted their cause by staging hunger strikes in 1980 and 1981.

"It has become an established cultural form of seeking justice in the 20th Century," says Prof Russell.

She warns that a hunger strike needs the oxygen of publicity but interest will wane if the cause at stake does not withstand public scrutiny.

Hunger strikes have been used by both violent and non-violent movements, and some have been more successful than others at bringing about change.

Michael Biggs, a sociologist at the University of Oxford, says some of the most successful cases were Irish republicans fighting the British state - Thomas Ashe, killed during forcible feeding in Dublin in 1917, Terence MacSwiney, starved to death in London in 1920, and Bobby Sands, starved to death in Long Kesh in 1981.

"These did not immediately bring concessions from the state. But they had a huge impact on the Irish public, both by shifting people towards Irish republicanism and by inflaming the emotions of those already committed to the cause.

"They also undermined support for the British state's policy among a portion of the British public."

In an international publicity coup, Sands was elected as an MP while on hunger strike and his funeral in Belfast was attended by at least 70,000 people.

Biggs says the hunger strikes by suffragettes in Britain "similarly gained media attention and enhanced the commitment of supporters" but the vote came later and arguably owed more to women's service in World War I.

How long can people last without food?

If people eat no food but are drinking water, they can last up to 60 days. With no water, they could die within eight to 10 days. They would become so dehydrated their body would stop functioning.

Once glucose, which is used to produce energy, is used up (in three to five days), the body goes to the fat stores for energy.

Ketone bodies are produced as a result of fat breakdown and when they become too numerous in the blood stream they can become lethal.

Once the fat stores have been depleted, the body will turn to muscle and vital organs such as the liver and heart for energy and the body simply wastes away.

It will vary from person to person - those with more fat stores should last longer, while a hunger strike will aggravate any underlying health issues.

Hunger strikers who take water, vitamins, glucose and salt, should last longer.

*Kathy Cowbrough, from the British Dietetic Association

Gandhi was a supreme practitioner of non-violent protest, he says, and the use of his methods by millions of Indians was very effective in undermining British rule in India.

He says the current protest by Indian campaigner Anna Hazare, who went on hunger strike in April to demand stringent anti-corruption laws, is different because it is occurring outside prison.

"While many people outside prison have gone on fasts for a time, it is almost unknown for someone to actually starve to death outside prison.

"In prison, there's really no other means of protest. And in prison the government is clearly responsible for your life/death and so can be blamed if you die."

Former IRA hunger striker Tommy McKearney says prisoners are limited in what they can do.

"So many things in a prisoner's life are dictated by their captors. We had three years of protests and did everything we could think of to bring a resolution but we needed make or break action."

The 58-year-old, who was serving time for the murder of part-time UDR soldier Stanley Adams, was part of the first wave of hunger strikers in 1980. They wanted the then Conservative government to give them back political prisoner status.

He says there was no master plan, with a "hunger strike as the grandstand final flourish".

"We didn't set out with the objective of dying but we were prepared to die.

"People who do it have a deep commitment, it's not a game to be played with. Only the cause will get you through."


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  • rate this

    Comment number 26.

    I loved to watch your news but recently disappointed that never have mentioned protest in biggest democracy ref ena hazari
    I am impresed by cnn news
    I hope you will give news
    sonia ghandhi among others are involved our p.m. is puppet of sonia
    all politicians and other persons must face court action

  • rate this

    Comment number 25.

    Attention directed to an otherwise ignored or partially ignored problem.
    Perhaps Mr. Hazare will discontinue his hunger strike when he notes that Parliament - India's upper house - began impeachment proceedings against a judge on charges that he misappropriated large sums of public money. If Parliament is going to monitor PM & judges, why MUST this responsibility be Lokpal-inclusive?

  • rate this

    Comment number 24.

    Technically, a hunger strike should be a crime. This is because in a hunger strike the person in question is essentially threatening to kill himself(blackmail and attempted suicide).
    There are other ways of protesting but I think Hunger Strikes are abuse of basic human rights.

  • rate this

    Comment number 23.

    #5 Dal: Josef Stalin (of all people) probably explained that best when he said that the death of one is a tragedy, but the deaths of a million is a statistic.

    Hunger strikes need much more than publicity to be successful. The cause for which the striker is fasting must be, if not fundamentally right, at least one that resonates with the populace.

    And it helps a LOT if people care if you die.

  • rate this

    Comment number 22.

    Although a hunger on death strike row would be self deafeating lol

  • rate this

    Comment number 21.

    @Strabb77, You'd be right if the 'point' of a hunger strike was suicide. Well, it's not. The point is the arousal of shame and pity in the abuser to the decaying human condition. Like any other form of protest, it attracts publicity. And THAT is the point of it, to mobilise support for a political cause. And quite frankly, Anna is succeeding because he's speaking for most Indians.

  • rate this

    Comment number 20.

    You need the right audience for a hunger strike to be affective. It helps if you are Black or Asian. BUT most importantly you need to be on the Liberal approved list of `good causes’ doesn’t matter if you have killed or murdered.
    Liberal approved list of `good causes’ IRA, Black rioters, assorted mass murderers on death row etc

  • rate this

    Comment number 19.

    I dont know, how long our country will be Looted by our politicians. AnnaHazare is representative of People of India for fight against corruption. If Govt has right stand on Anna Hazare, then It should allow legislatives and PM to be under Lokpal.

  • rate this

    Comment number 18.

    Govt does not has valid stand on Anna. It is badluck of country to have a govt which is Indian just by skin and un-patrotic by mind.

    Mr. Manmohan made a foul point that, 'It is duty and decisions of Delhi Police to all what is happening and Standing Committee has to dcide lokpal. He cannot act on it.' I think it is duty of Govt to take vital decisions.

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.

    Unlike US UK and many other countries where ruling party has to have a sizeable majority here in india you can muster majority in parliament despite getting meagre or a poor percentage of votes in totality.This is due to a flaw in the system where one gets a seat in the parliament by managing multiple candidates to file their nominations from a particular constituency and get highest no of votes.

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    Hunger strikes directly achieve nothing. It completely depends on the opponent against whom we are fasting. The British are the most civilized society in this world and with a conscience which always matters no matter how brutal they got at times (My personal opnion). Luckily(sic), we Indians had British colonial rule; had it been the nazis its an easy guess how many graves may have been dug.

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    I fully agree with indian prime minister that it is the prerogative of the parliament to frame laws.But there is one technical flaw with the indian parliamentary democracy.If we calculate the mp's of ruling party and the total no of votes they got in the last elections it would be an alarming fact that they represent a poor percent of the total population which in no way can be called populous.

  • Comment number 14.

    This comment was removed because the moderators found it broke the house rules. Explain.

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    "Hunger strikers who take water, vitamins, glucose and salt, should last longer."

    kind of defeats the point, does`nt it?

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    The western media must sympathise with us, helpless and frustrated Indians. Our country is being LOOTED by politicians.
    The Lokpal Bill, arguably, may not be the pancea for this evil. The JUDICIARY has escaped accountabilty and this has led to fearlessness of the law. JUSTICE must be time bound. And corruption in the judiciary ( and cabinet ) must invite the DEATH penalty - for treason.

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    nice write up. But would like to add that the article has missed out on a very famous personality who died while fasting - Potti Sriramulu in the erstwhile state of Madras while fasting for a demand for carving out a separate state of Andhra Pradesh on the basis of lingusitic reorganisation in India. He fasted for 82 days and died in 1952. He was a Gandhian.

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    Who is Irom Sharmila?

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    Anna hazare is one in crores of indians start fight against corrution. every hurdle is to cross for a good cause, he started a peacefull protest against corrution we should appreciate his will at this age. Think , Experience and taste the life of a common, how he is effected today because of corruption. them conclude what Anna is doing good or bad. As a responsible citizen.

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    Let them eat cake!

    On a more serious side...
    He got himself into the media spotlight.
    A person putting themselves onto a starvation diet usually does so with a political aim. Raw basics is intended to give credence to their statement or purpose.
    Getting media coverage announces world wide that his human rights is of lesser importance than his agenda.

    Where is there an uncorrupted government?

  • rate this

    Comment number 7.

    What hunger strikes provoke is guilt to the moral conscience of the abuser. If Paul's mentality is correct, then why did British colonialists feel shamed by the non-violent self-starvations of Gandhi? Behind the façade of arrogance is a chord of humanity, and that is the chord that Anna hopes to strike. If the corrupt are demoniacal enough to rebuke him, then the Indian electorate will respond


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