The photographic legacy of Garry Winogrand

 
Garry Winogrand, Point Mugu Naval Air Station, California, ca 1979; posthumous digital reproduction from original negative; Garry Winogrand Archive, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona Point Mugu Naval Air Station, California, 1979

For those of us interested in street photography there are a few names that stand out and one of those is Garry Winogrand, whose pictures of New York in the 1960s are a photographic lesson in every frame.

A new exhibition at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art is showing some of the pictures he left behind for the first time and photographer Stephen McLaren went along to report on the show.

One of the great mysteries of 20th Century photography had been solved - albeit partially - at San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.

The mystery concerns the later years of Garry Winogrand, a major figure in American and world photography, who died prematurely in 1984 at the age of 56.

Although dead for nearly 30 years, Winogrand remains a totemic figure to many of today's generation of street photographers. His ballsy attitude, dynamic and kinetic compositions, and refusal to repeat himself have made him a hero for photographers grappling with the challenges of shooting candid situations in everyday life.

Always prodigious, Winogrand left behind 6,500 rolls of film from which he never made prints, or even had processed. For a photographer with a reputation for shooting brilliant images from all corners of America this was a massive amount of material which had never been evaluated - until now.

Winogrand's work on show

Leo Rubinfien, a New-York based photographer who was a friend and former student of Winogrand's, decided in 2001 that it was time to reappraise the career of his mentor and finally draw some conclusions as to how his work had played-out in his later years.

This major retrospective of Winogrand's working life includes more than 300 pictures, one-third of which which have never been seen before in public. As a result, we finally get to discover what Garry Winogrand was shooting at with his Leica and wide-angle lens so furiously in the last decade or so of his life.

A hastily produced retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1988 made an attempt to grapple with the posthumous archive. However, after reviewing a selection of images from some of the unprocessed films, the curator, John Szarkowski, judged that while living in Texas and Los Angeles in the 1970s and 80s, Winogrand had lost much of his creative focus and had not been applying himself with the same level of intensity as he had in New York.

Garry Winogrand, Los Angeles, ca.1980-83; gelatin silver print; Garry Winogrand Archive, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona; © The Estate of Garry Winogrand, courtesy Fraenkel Gallery, San Francisco Los Angeles, 1980-83

Reasons given for the abrupt change in his work included family break-up, possibly leaving him despondent and disillusioned, and also a suggestion that his relocation from the energetic streets of Manhattan to the wider, emptier, less claustrophobic spaces of the West had robbed him of that energy which courses through New York's sidewalks.

Start Quote

The thing itself is fascinating. The game, let's say, of trying to state photographic problems is, for me, absolutely fascinating. I use the word 'play'; but you understand the word 'play' - if you ever watch children play - what do you observe when you watch children play? You know, they're dead serious. They're not on vacation”

End Quote Garry Winogrand Image Magazine, 1970

The considered opinion on Winogrand's posthumous archive was, "nothing much to see here".

Finding it hard to believe that his mentor's creative powers had deserted him so abruptly, Rubinfien decided that he would have to look deeper and more inquisitively into the archive.

To gain a new appreciation of what Winogrand was shooting in California and Texas, a team of specialists including Rubinfien and assistant curator Erin O'Toole have spent the past few years sorting through and appraising the massive stockpile of films stored at the Center for Creative Photography of the University of Arizona, Tucson.

As you enter the section of the exhibition devoted to those later years, it quickly becomes apparent you are looking at pictures of a different order to the ones which brought him recognition in the 1960s.

Gone are the punchy chaotic street scenes chock-full of oddball characters, animals and apparently haphazard framing. Instead we see more solitary and introspective characters, the mood is typically foreboding and in the pictures from Los Angeles, no-one seems to be living the Californian dream which had the Beach Boys harmonising.

"The late Los Angeles work is one of the great discoveries of this show," said Rubinfien. "We were told, and we believed, that he dissolved in the last 12 years and trailed off and ended up nowhere.

"But he didn't end up nowhere - he ended up in the middle of a very dark poetry full of its own kind of pathos and we've managed to give that a shape and a character and its here in the show."

Garry Winogrand, Fort Worth, Texas, 1974-77. Gelatin silver print. Garry Winogrand Archive, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona Fort Worth, Texas, 1974-77

He was a photographer who showed little interest in editing his own work for publication or exhibition, instead leaving it to trusted curators and friends, so the question of how this archive should be approached is also troubling for Rubinfien.

"Winogrand would have been the very first person to say stories should have no endings. If you give my life's work a conclusion you are distorting the reality, you are falsifying the story.

"But the requirements of the living man and his surviving appreciators are not the same, and it seems to me, sentimentalist that I am, that this provides a very beautiful and appropriate conclusion to our sense of how the larger arc of his work developed."

Interviews would find Winogrand veering away from ascribing easy meanings or narratives to pictures which he felt could and should be read in a multiplicity of ways. Instead he found it more convenient to describe his art as grappling with photographic problems, or even as a form of play.

Garry Winogrand, Los Angeles, 1980-83; posthumous digital reproduction from original negative; Garry Winogrand Archive, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona Los Angeles, 1980-83

At the opening reception for the exhibition I found Paul Graham, a world-renowned British photographer whose work, like Winogrand, thrives on open-ended narratives and a multitude of competing interpretations.

"He is one of the reasons I love and embraced photography," said Graham. "He is one of the most unique and important figures in post-war photography without any question at all. I admire his ability to read the world and to get all that into a photograph, so that other people can read it too. And to keep the image open, not close it down, not give it a simplistic humanistic message like the magazines were saying in the 50s and 60s, go way beyond that."

 Garry Winogrand, Park Avenue, New York, 1959; gelatin silver print; collection National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, Patrons' Permanent Fund; image courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC Park Avenue, New York, 1959

Graham expressed some doubts as to how willing the general public who are not into photography might be to engage with what he described as "300 little grey rectangles on wall" , but added that those able to give the exhibition the time and patience necessary would find it immensely rewarding.

The assistant curator at SF Moma, Erin O'Toole, believes that Winogrand's "shoot first, edit later" methodology will strike a chord with many modern photographers.

"I think this will resonate with people because this work is so much of and about the world he experienced. It's like people shooting lots of digital photos on their phone or cameras and showing people, 'This is what I saw!' .

"This is what this is about, him being out in the world, marvelling at all the things he experienced. When you see how much he created it's on a scale of what people shoot digitally. He was incredibly prolific and like people who shoot digitally he didn't print a lot of his images."

Despite his poor, almost non-existent, editing, Garry Winogrand left an immense body of work which is a startling account of America in the late 20th Century. It appears that right to the end he lived just to go out shooting the next day and to see what photographic challenges he could set himself.

Speaking not long before he died he said: "What I found out, over photographing a long time - the more I do, the more I do. When you're younger, you can only conceive of trying a limited amount of things to work with. The more I work, the more subject matter I can begin to try to deal with."

Garry Winogrand,  New York World's Fair, 1964; gelatin silver print; Collection SFMOMA, gift of Dr. L. F. Peede, Jr New York World's Fair, 1964
12. Garry Winogrand, New York; 1968; SFMOMA, figt of Dr. L.F. Peede, Jr New York, 1968
Garry Winogrand, Los Angeles, 1964; gelatin silver print; Garry Winogrand Archive, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona Los Angeles, 1964
Garry Winogrand, Central Park Zoo, New York, 1967; gelatin silver print; Collection of Randi and Bob Fisher Central Park Zoo, New York, 1967
Garry Winogrand, Fort Worth, Texas, 1974-77; gelatin silver print; Garry Winogrand Archive, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona Fort Worth, Texas, 1974-77
Garry Winogrand, Fort Worth, Texas, 1975; gelatin silver print; Collection SFMOMA, gift of Dr. Paul Getz Fort Worth, Texas, 1975
Garry Winogrand, Albuquerque, 1957; gelatin silver print; The Museum of Modern Art, New York, purchase Albuquerque, 1957
Garry Winogrand, Richard Nixon Campaign Rally, New York, 1960; posthumous digital reproduction from original negative; Garry Winogrand Archive, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona Richard Nixon Campaign Rally, New York, 1960
Garry Winogrand, Venice Beach, Los Angeles, 1980-83; posthumous digital reproduction from original negative; Garry Winogrand Archive, Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona Venice Beach, Los Angeles, 1980-83

This eagerly awaited exhibition, which opens this weekend, was jointly produced with the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC. More details can be found on the website of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. It tours other American cities next year and then visits Paris and Madrid in 2015. As yet there is no news of the exhibition coming to the UK.

Stephen McLaren is a street photographer and co-author, with Sophie Howarth, of Street Photography Now.

 
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  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 35.

    What inane comments from a bunch of ignorant people. If a surgeon carries out enough operations he/she is bound to get a few successes. Great way of training and developing expertise.!!! The great ignorance of the majority of people confines them to the mediocrity of the dumb consumer fed public who know nothing and are unwilling to research, read, investigate, enquire or observe visual history.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 34.

    @BJ

    But the photos were not taken today. And when did "today" become the standard benchmark against which to measure photography?

    You ignore context and perspective, which are cornerstones of the art of photography.

    Baffling comment from an "experienced photographer".

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 33.

    The fact that many on this site had not even heard of Winogrand tells me a lot bout the photography seen in the UK and the people that profess to know about photography. Bet they have heard of David Bailey although he is not in the same genre. I wonder if they have heard of John Szarkowski, Lee Friedlander, Sebastiao Salgado, Joseph Koudelka, Eugene Atget,Walker Evans or Robert Frank. I doubt it.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 32.

    As a regular shutterbug yes it's easy to point and click but the trick is pointing it in the right direction and at the right time. A nano second too soon or too late and the picture is lost.

    An expensive camera wont help you pick that moment or the subject. You could take 10,000 photos and still miss the action if your looking somewhere else.

  • rate this
    -1

    Comment number 31.

    For street photography, photo mags of the period recommended cameras with waist level finders and small rangefinder cameras set up to shoot and run The idea was that the photographer shouldn't be involved in the scene, so people shouldnt see and pose or respond to the camera.That meant that framing tended not to be perfect. Few people did it back then, now days with cameras everywhere everyone can

  • rate this
    -2

    Comment number 30.

    28.Stuart Haden

    I am a reasonably experienced photographer, so I can spot a decent photo. I just think this set are OK, but in the main technically poor and of fairly uninteresting subject matters.

    They have achieved 'legendary' status because they were taken by some tortured soul, in the 60s/70s, in b/w, on crude equipment. If someone knocked them out today, they would not pass muster

  • rate this
    -1

    Comment number 29.

    this column is brought to by the word retentive.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 28.

    Most people would not recognise a great photograph if they were staring at it. Forget photography magazines. They are only interested in selling equipment or software. Most people do not understand what great photography is about. It is definitely not about capturing a cliche seen so many times before such as a sunset, puppy dog or imitation painting. It is about what a dumb machine records.

  • rate this
    +2

    Comment number 27.

    snowflake Film in the USA was and is much cheaper than here. As Garry used Kodak which was produced is produced in the USA and he bought bulk it was next to nothing. Furthermore he did not spend money on anything else. He was not interested in equipment, magazines, fashion, cars, clothes.... He was passionate about photography. Giving a camera to a monkey would not guarantee a great photograph.

  • rate this
    -3

    Comment number 26.

    25.Graphis

    I guess he can be a master story-teller because that's what people need him to be. And being that gives him a mystique and otherworldliness which people like you and I do not have the mental agility to comprehend. Plus, it means some average black-and-whites of street scenes can be elevated from 'decent snaps' to 'art'.

  • rate this
    -3

    Comment number 25.

    12. Bruxical
    " a master story teller."

    How can HE be the story-teller? He's simply taking a snap of something that's already happening, that he is not directing, and has no control over. That's not telling a story, that's recording one. And as we were not present, we don't know what the real story was, so our heads make one up to fit the image.

  • rate this
    -1

    Comment number 24.

    11. johval
    yes in those days you had to have money to blast off a lot of shots & pick the few good ones. Developing/darkroom costs were prohibitive too. But now it's cheap & everyone can take thousands of shots & throw away the bad ones at no cost. The same goes with the music industry. Take enough shots/takes and one of them must be good.

  • rate this
    -2

    Comment number 23.

    22.Stuart Haden

    There's some sort of superior insight is there that most of us are not blessed with?

    People here are not saying, 'I could do that', they are saying, 'that's not very good', or, 'those are a bit average given they have been allocated all this space on the BBC website'.

    As for your comment at 19: Jung's universal consciousness? Come on, you've got to be having a giraffe.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 22.

    NothernApe Yes. And I have all the books on him too. I monitored his classes whilst at the University of Texas at Austin and was on the streets with him so I know what I am talking about. One problem everyone thinks they know what a great photograph is. Rather like everyone saying I can paint and draw as well as Picasso. He was extremely well educated about photography. He was ahead of the rest.

  • rate this
    -1

    Comment number 21.

    19.
    Stuart Haden

    Are you looking at the same snaps as the rest of us?

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 20.

    Those that do not understand fail to see with their eyes only

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 19.

    Only Los Angeles 1980-83 is new to me. The remainder have been published before. Garry Winogrand is, in my opinion, the greatest street photographer there has ever been. His work is so far ahead of its time that only a few appreciate and admire what he achieved. He was dealing with Carl Jung's universal consciousness. I am sure his friend Lee Friedlander and the late John Szarkowski would agree.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 18.

    What is imprecisely termed 'Street Photography' invariably deals with fleeting moments, so there's often no way other than to shoot many pics in the hope of getting just one decent image.

    The problem for me is that we are fed as 'great street photography', so much of the dross that most defintely isn't that decent image.

  • rate this
    0

    Comment number 17.

    A couple of the photos look okay, but really????

    Good on him for fooling the easily lead public and making some cash from it though.

  • rate this
    +1

    Comment number 16.

    The interesting thing about street photography is whether someone has ever thought of doing the experiment of randomly snapping pictures and then letting time test the value of their randomness.

    There are truly great street photos, though, and their greatness and longevity will be instantly apparent.

 

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