Viewpoints: Teaching children to read

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Finding the best way to inspire children to become fluent readers has long been debated. The "look and say" approach, where children learnt to memorise words, dominated in the 1940s, 50s and 60s. But now the pendulum has swung towards phonics-based teaching, where children decode words by sounds.

The Department for Education says international evidence demonstrates that phonics is the most effective way of teaching early reading, and this year introduced a phonics reading test for six-year-olds. So what is the best way to teach children how to read?

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David Reedy

Not all words in English are phonically regular”

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David Reedy, UK Literacy Association

The teaching of reading should encompass a balance of teaching strategies including a systematic approach to phonics and other word reading strategies, and a significant emphasis on children experiencing a wide range of texts, including moving image and digital - all available to read from the very beginning.

Phonics teaching is an important component of the teaching of reading, but not all words in English are phonically regular (the linguist David Crystal estimates 80% are, but the other 20% contains many of the most common words in English).

Young children need more than phonics to read words accurately. For many very common words in English such as "come", "once", "was", "the", the best method for accuracy is to read them as "sight" words - that is, using the strategy of look and say. In addition, in order to be fully accurate in word reading, we have to use meaning gleaned from the context in many cases, for example "read", "lead", "sow", "close".

David Reedy

  • Secretary of UK Literacy Association
  • Says a wide range of techniques should be used

Attention should be given to reading for purpose and pleasure, and to introduce children to more challenging texts as well as focus on word reading skills. A school should invest significantly in books and adult time to support reading. Teachers should be knowledgeable and enthusiastic about literature suitable for children so they can recommend and inspire their classes as well as individuals.

Motivation to read is a crucial component of a teacher's job. This approach results in deep engagement as well as accuracy in reading, both of which are crucial and lead to high standards. We need to develop both the skill and the will.

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Shelagh Harvey and pupils

The reading test is fundamentally flawed”

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Shelagh Harvey, head teacher

There is no simple way to teach all children to read. Phonics, contextual clues, sounding out, going back to words - all of these are important skills. Phonics is important, but I do think it has been over-exaggerated of late.

We run a very successful phonics reading project for the majority of our children, but we need to find different strategies for a small group of children who struggle with it.

I think the government's reading test is fundamentally flawed. It didn't give us any clues for helping us move forward with our children.

I had two very able readers at the end of Year 1 who failed the test, but who could read a Level 2 book and read fluently. One failed because she refused to read the non-word and the other little girl rushed because she's used to reading, not sounding out words.

Shelagh Harvey

  • Head teacher at Ingatestone Infants School in Essex
  • Supports use of phonics, but wants phonics reading test scrapped

The over-emphasis on phonics and the test may put pressure on some teachers to "teach to the test" at the expense of a wide richer reading experience. A minority of children, for whom phonics is not successful, could be deprived of other reading strategies and have their difficulties exacerbated. It is also known that some children who are good with phonics and able to decode successfully do so at the cost of understanding what they read, known as "barking at text".

The only way we can really measure progress is to let our children read. Here we sit them down with appropriate texts and judge them at the level they are reading at. You have to give children skills and a range of materials. We do a lot of work with parents too, encouraging them to read to and with their children.

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Maureen  McLaughlin

Our goal is to teach students to become engaged readers”

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Prof Maureen McLaughlin, International Reading Association

Reading is a complex process that involves multiple factors including decoding, integrating background experiences, having purposes for reading, and using skills and strategies to construct meaning. For very young readers, the process begins with issues such as the alphabetic principle and concepts of print. The goal of successful reading is comprehension.

There are five pillars of literacy - phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. All contribute to reading comprehension. Students need ample opportunity to learn, practise, and use these skills. Researchers report that students' construction of meaning is enhanced when they use a repertoire of reading comprehension strategies, including predicting, self-questioning, visualising, monitoring, summarising, and evaluating.

Students have diverse strengths, needs, opportunities and cultural backgrounds.

Maureen McLaughlin

  • President-elect of International Reading Association

To ensure access and opportunities for all students to become readers and achieve their greatest potential, reading instruction should be differentiated. Differentiated instruction enables us to accommodate the diversity of students' needs. Struggling readers, students with disabilities and dual language learners are examples of students for whom instruction should be differentiated.

Reading is essential in the complex, global society in which we live. It is important for personal, social and economic well-being. As literacy professionals, our goal is to teach students to become active, engaged readers, who succeed to their greatest potential.

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Lisa Morgan

Reading relies on strong speech and language skills”

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Lisa Morgan, speech and language therapist

Reading effectively for meaning and pleasure involves a complex range of skills, most of which rely on strong speech and language skills - using sounds to decode, knowing how words work together and understanding the vocabulary to gain meaning, for example. We know that children with good oral language skills are likely to become good readers.

In the UK, more than one million children have long-term and persistent speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). We know that these children are at greater risk of literacy difficulties.

Add to this the evidence that highlights that in areas of social disadvantage upwards of 50% of children are starting school with delayed language, then this raises key questions about ways to support children with SLCN to learn to read.

Lisa Morgan

  • Registered speech and language therapist
  • Professional director at Communication Trust, a coalition of voluntary organisations

For some children with SLCN, a phonic approach, within a context of focused language enrichment and opportunities, will work well to support their reading development. For others, it absolutely won't. For some, assessing their phonic skills in Year 1 through the phonics screen has been OK. For others, it absolutely hasn't.

Each child and young person with SLCN is different - their needs are different, their strengths are different and the ways in which they best learn are different too.

It is therefore essential that firstly teachers understand a child's SLCN and any implications for developing their literacy, and secondly that they are skilled and confident in choosing and using whatever works for that child in developing their reading skills.

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Siobhan Freegard

It's good to let children see adults reading too”

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Siobhan Freegard, parenting website Netmums

Reading regularly to children from an early age is important as they will learn to love stories and books.

Making reading part of the everyday routine, so children quickly pick up subtle skills such as which way to follow the print of a book, how to use pictures to help decode the words, and how to recognise initial letters and the most commonly used words.

It's good to let them see adults reading too, surrounding the home with books, magazines and newspapers, as children learn by copying adults. Parents can share the stories they are reading and any funny parts or interesting nuggets to spark their interest.

Siobhan Freegard

  • Founder of Netmums parenting website
  • Says parents can do a lot to encourage children to read - and to enjoy it

The other key building block to learning to read is rhymes and sounds. Singing or chanting poems and rhymes to children will help them to learn their favourites and decipher rhyming words and different sounds, all of which will help them with their phonics skills later on.

But apart from school books that need to be read, parents should not force books on their children and should let them read what they like - whether that is comics or football magazines - so they realise reading is fun.


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  • rate this

    Comment number 145.


    Sarcasm doesn't help your argument.
    Teachers or parents should tell kids about the exceptions that don't fit the rule, when they get older and learn to use a dictionary they can check themselves.
    Ghoti is a made up word. Almost all words in the dictionary have only ONE correct pronounciation. Your "point" is academic only and has little practical value.

  • rate this

    Comment number 144.

    Teaching reading is very simple. For toddlers start by putting a single capital A on the wall 4 inches high. Proceed thru the alphabet like that. Then start making 3 letter words CAT, HAT etc. Then longer words. Taught my children to read fluently BEFORE they went to school - they loved it. Have taught people of all ages and many nationalities. Chinese know 400 characters by 6 AND English reading!

  • rate this

    Comment number 143.

    Obviously, everyone writing on this topic is well able to read, and with understanding. So far so good. Would it be fair to assume then, that all of us (with what seems to be a wide age range) were taught using phonics, or could there possibly have been a variety of methods employed during our early reading years? Or could it be that the way we were taught is not necessarily the way we learned?

  • rate this

    Comment number 142.

    Myky D @ 103: "omg dis iz well dull lol"

    Very good!

    Whatever your views on the best way to teach reading, you can be sure the Government will want to beat the teaching profession over the head with a doctrinaire, dogged adherence to phonics. It's the best way, after all, to soak up support from the Daily Mail and other great proponents of progressive education.

  • rate this

    Comment number 141.

    Teaching most children to read is actually easy... but you have to be the parent of the child to do it.
    1. Have reading material in the home
    2. Read to your child and been seen reading by your child
    3. Show them the words / letters around them - on toys, games, signs, computers, even sweets.
    4. Give them books as early as possible.
    5. Spend time with them reading.

  • rate this

    Comment number 140.

    "if parents read to children when they are very small, the child will enjoy reading for themselves as they get older."


    My parents read to me frequently, and I thoroughly enjoyed bedtime stories.

    I've never enjoyed reading, and much prefer to watch the movie than read the book.

    No doubt that'll rile the Luddites on here.

  • rate this

    Comment number 139.

    Any engineer who proposed replacing a system that was 99% effective with one that was completely untried would be told to go back and start again. the system that produced a highly literate population before the 1960's was thrown out in favor of trendy new ideas, just as the "new math" replaced something that produced a generation of competent engineers. And people wonder why we are in a mess,

  • rate this

    Comment number 138.

    There is no “one formula fits all” on this one - I speak as a teacher in schools and university. I worked with a broad range of abilities and disabilities, including many who found difficulty in writing up their projects. Why? Ignoring dyslexia and other setbacks, I would put some of it down to the communications IT bonanza. Words are no longer savoured as they were in my formative years.

  • rate this

    Comment number 137.

    134. ConnorMacLeod

    'It's called the pronounciation section at the front of the dictionary.'

    How to encourage a love of reading in six year olds ... carry a dictionary and check the pronunciation of unfamiliar words. Brilliant.

    'Gohti = goatee (not fish !)' You make my point well. If I decide it's 'gh' as in 'rough', 'o' as in 'women' and 'ti' as in station what tells me it isn't fish?

  • rate this

    Comment number 136.

    79 ... Better kids learn latin as at least there is a structure and the English language would be more easily understood.
    Utter nonsense. English has a structure. It is different from that of Latin, and is learned in a different way. If you insist, of course, try teaching children Finnish, which really is regular, though is not likely to help in the learning of English.

  • rate this

    Comment number 135.

    My son is autistic and has a speech delay of a year. When he started school, I was worried about him learning to read. However, learning to read through phonics has really worked for him. He picked it up quickly, can read better than I thought he would be able to, and his speech has improved. The system definitely works.

  • rate this

    Comment number 134.


    ... easy to follow, reliable, guide...

    It's been done already. It's called the pronounciation section at the front of the dictionary.
    Do you think the teachers who teach phonics to kids are so stupid that they're not aware of all the irregularities that the language throws up ?
    As I said - it's not a perfect solution just a "best fit"

    Gohti = goatee (not fish !)

  • rate this

    Comment number 133.

    I think it's more important to get the parents on board. We have always read with our kids and have loads of books in the house. They still get a bedtime story - and were encouraged to read from an early age. Now at 9 and 7 we often find them with their heads in a book and both are advanced readers. Also each child is different, and what works for one (Phonics) may not work for the second child.

  • rate this

    Comment number 132.

    74. ConnorMacLeod
    ... Phonics teaches the rules to pronounce most common sounds and allows you to "build up" unfamiliar words. Once the basic sounds are mastered, you can teach the exceptions later...
    Many words needed in the early reading stage are irregular. Phonics does not help with such exceptions, but such words cannot be left until later.

  • rate this

    Comment number 131.

    Reading is from an era when things like TV and interactive digital media didn't exist, it is less important in the modern age. Better to focus on science and maths instead of language, which ultimately isn't going make a difference to the state of.....

    What a stupid comment - how are you going to progress in such subjects as science and maths if you can't read!

  • rate this

    Comment number 130.

    127. ConnorMacLeod

    'You can only figure out the meanings of words from context when you have experience - young kids don't have this.'

    Don't they? How do they learn to talk then? Two children are reading 'My grandma lives in a house'. One tries to decode and reads 'My grandma lives in a horse'. The other reads 'My grandma lives in a bungalow.' Who is the better reader?


  • rate this

    Comment number 129.

    Comics are a great avenue to reading for kids. Some parents aren't confident enough to help or read to their own children.

    Comics are entertaining, 'cooler' than books & help strugglers by using pictures to carry the story. Enjoyable with friends too.

  • rate this

    Comment number 128.

    79 Little_Old_Me I agree, English is not a language based on phonic sounds and would only serve to further degrade any education kids would get through it, as nothing would make sense to them. Better kids learn latin as at least there is a structure and the English language would be more easily understood. Also applicable in various fields outside the classroom.

  • rate this

    Comment number 127.


    People use different methods to learn, but they'll always use some sort of system whether they realise it or not.
    What's your solution ?
    Whole word recognition has limited use at an early stage but is little better than rote learning with no rules to apply.
    You can only figure out the meanings of words from context when you have experience - young kids don't have this.

  • rate this

    Comment number 126.

    Just now


    I think her point was that you can start with the sounds which is good, but you can't leave the words you have to learn too long - e.g. how many books can you read without knowing how to read "was" which would be woz phonically, or "said" which would be "sed" phonically.
    No child is the same and no method is a universal panecea.


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