Inflation, unemployment and UK 'misery'

Job centre sign Which causes more misery, unemployment or inflation?

We've just had two big UK data releases - inflation and unemployment - which showed no dramatic improvement, but at least things aren't getting worse.

However, the continued squeeze in wages is a reminder of how far the UK still has to go before the recovery feels more like one. It's prompted me to take a look at how Britons have fared through what's called the "misery index".

Back in the 1960s, the economist Arthur Okun came up with a simple way of summarising the change in national welfare. The misery index is just the sum of two economic "bads". They are: inflation and unemployment.

This week, we learned that consumer prices in September were 2.7% higher than a year earlier. Although this is above the 2% inflation target of the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), it is below the 3% rate that would trigger an open letter of explanation from the Bank of England governor to the chancellor.

Since taking office in July, Mark Carney has not yet had to write any letters. Looking at the central projection for the consumer prices index (CPI) inflation rate in the last Inflation Report, the MPC does not expect inflation to rise above 3% in the next three years - although there are comfy margins of error around this assessment.

His predecessor, Mervyn King, had to be more active with his pen. There was only one month between January 2010 and March 2012 when inflation was not above 3%.

Now we have learned that the unemployment rate in the three months to August remained at 7.7%. Before the financial crisis, the unemployment rate was hovering at just over 5%. Because of the weak economic recovery, unemployment has been stubbornly high in comparison.

However, the rise in unemployment has been modest compared to previous downturns. In both the early 1980s and 1990s, unemployment breached three million people, well over 10% of the labour force.

Furthermore, the Bank of England has pledged forward guidance that interest rates will not be raised until unemployment has fallen below 7%, bar any unpleasant news on inflationary pressures.

Earnings squeezed

So adding the unemployment rate to the consumer price inflation rate gives an overall misery index of 10.4. This is much higher than in the decade leading up to the financial crisis, a period known as the Great Moderation, when the UK misery index averaged below seven.

But it is not so high when you look historically. After the quadrupling of oil prices in 1973, subsequent high inflation saw the misery index approach 30 in 1975.

The stagflation of the late 1970s meant that the misery index was about 25 in 1980. During the early 1990s recession, the misery index also spiked at over 16 in 1991.

So with the recent inflationary pressures appearing to ease and the MPC putting more weight on unemployment in the setting of monetary policy, you would expect the British to be less miserable going forward.

However, recent increases in food, energy and fuel prices at a time when wage growth has been anaemic have reduced real earnings. The squeeze on living standards is likely to be a key battlefield going into the next general election.

Just a reminder: inflation measures the rate of change in consumer prices, not the level of prices. This means that past increases in prices will eventually drop out of the inflation calculation, but you will still feel them in the price you pay for goods and services.

Over the last four years, the index of consumer prices has risen by nearly 14%. Had it gone up in line with the inflation target, it would have been a little over 8% higher.

According to the ONS, food (up 19%), gas (up 21%), electricity (up 25%) and road fuels (up 29%) have accounted for the majority of the increase.

Perception problem

However, not all prices have risen so quickly. For example, the prices of clothing (up 5%) and household appliances (up 6%) have increased at rates below the inflation target.

And some prices have even fallen over the last four years. Motor vehicles are 0.5% cheaper, largely due to a significant fall in the price of second-hand cars.

Audio-visual equipment and computers are 25% cheaper, although for many of these goods, it's because the ONS makes an adjustment to the price to reflect rapid improvements in quality.

Note that the prices of things we buy regularly and class as necessities have increased the fastest, while those we buy less frequently and could delay the purchase of have shown more restraint.

This, perhaps, gives the perception that inflation is higher than the official rate suggests. We would be more aware and sensitive to where prices have been increasing quickly than where they have been increasing more slowly or even falling.

The situation for British households is made worse by the slump in earnings growth. Over the last four years, regular pay has increased at about half the rate of inflation, meaning real (adjusted for inflation) earnings have been falling an average 1.6% per year.

In the past, it has been argued that the misery index should place a higher weight on unemployment than inflation. This is because workers were typically compensated for increases in the cost of living with higher wages.

Studies to measure happiness, quite the in thing these days, also stress the detrimental effects of unemployment on individual and societal well-being. But at present, it might be inflation that is the bigger cause of British misery.

Linda Yueh Article written by Linda Yueh Linda Yueh Chief business correspondent

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  • rate this

    Comment number 146.

    @145 wOODY
    It's more of a multi-speed recovery, and more of a north/south divide. Unemployment is lowest in the East of England, the South East and the South West and highest in the North East, West Midlands, Yorkshire, London, and the North West. House prices have grown fastest recently in London and the midlands. Apart from Northern Ireland, most areas are up 80% or more on a decade ago.

  • rate this

    Comment number 145.

    Unfortunately or fortunately depending on where you live we have a two speed economy. South East and the rest. Jobs are not difficult to come by in the SE but elsewhere near impossible. House prices rising in the SE stagnating elsewhere. We need to redress the balance, but that requires the skills to be in the right place. Not happening at the moment. Maybe we need a two location misery index/

  • rate this

    Comment number 144.

    @142 alan
    If one has a small garden...

    The less well off spend a much higher percentage than average on the basics that have risen at twice the rate of inflation. Index linked pensions and benefits makes this a higher and growing percentage. And only above average incomes have risen as much as index-linked incomes. Not as bad as the fifties, I agree. but worse than the nineties for many.

  • rate this

    Comment number 143.

    @141 Total actual hours worked are up, yet again, to a new all-time high: 958,900,000. Nothing to crow about, but still an improvement. Average hours worked are stable at 32.1 per week, about the same as 2007. At 16 hours per week, part-time workers appear to be working more hours than at any time since 1992. Just 1.5% usually work less than 6 hours, stable over the past ten years.

  • rate this

    Comment number 142.

    138 Grounder
    Food prices have gone up in recent years faster than the rate of inflation but on average we only spend about 12% of our disposable income on food compared with over 40% in the 1950's.
    Most people spend more on their cars than on their food.
    The era of cheap food is over.
    One can grow a lot in a small garden.

  • rate this

    Comment number 141.

    Emplyment may be going up in terms of the number of people...

    ...but what about the total number of hours worked in the economy...

    ....this dog of a Tory led Coalition Govt. aren't crowing about that figure are they...

    ...millions still unemployed, millions more still PT, millions more on zero hours...

    ...all smoke & mirrors........

  • rate this

    Comment number 140.

    And at the same time , this story gets quietly published! anyone else appalled? 'Poor people, get back in your place and stop whinging!' We desperately need greater social equality, and where is that mentioned? They wonder why we're miserable? Try living on a modern 'working wage'!

  • rate this

    Comment number 139.

    Another of Scamerons lies exposed "making work pay"

    Social mobility report: Work 'may be no route out of poverty'

    For millions of families, work no longer pays enough to provide a route out of poverty, the government's social mobility tsar is expected to warn. A report headed up by one-time Labour minister Alan Milburn will highlight stagnating incomes and rising prices.

  • rate this

    Comment number 138.

    @28. M_T_Wallet "The inflation measure is obsolete."

    Agreed, it is too crude. And Linda's review of a four-year period is not as helpful as it might be. But the ONS publishes thousands of figures every month which can shed more light. Over the last 8 years, food and energy prices have grown by about 50%, double the headline rate of inflation, while average weekly earnings have grown by about 25%.

  • rate this

    Comment number 137.

    The article contains some good observations BUT To know what the true misery factor is, you have to go out and ask a wide spectrum of people about there lives and hardships.

    You can do as many calculations as you like with Government manipulated numbers, (which all the ones you use are) this will tell you nothing of any substance. Just Government misinformation/propaganda..

  • rate this

    Comment number 136.

    Wifes pension put back 5 yrs and no interest on savings (MY pension)
    Going to be over £800 month down where we should be by next year
    And they complain about a few quid of bedroom tax.
    The 2008 Bull poop Climate change Act will take care of the rest which aided the the high cost of energy & travel causing more misery to come...
    Just swell

  • rate this

    Comment number 135.

    @133. I'm only here temporarily.
    So I wonder if I'll live long enough to see the end of this "phenomenon" called crazy monetary policy.

    The BoE are of course the experts at "looking through temporary albeit protracted" phenomena like above-target inflation. I wonder if by bank would look through my temporary lack of funds?

    QE may also be a temporary total waste of money.

  • rate this

    Comment number 134.

    A long and affluent retirement has been enjoyed by some but it has been an aberration.
    In the sixties you were lucky if you reached the retirement age of 65, retired, and then died a few years later.
    Pensions are no longer affordable so we will have to return to that, but with an extended retirement age.
    More people dying on the job will work wonders for the social security budget.

  • rate this

    Comment number 133.

    QE has kept interest rates low which has been very helpful to the economy and borrowers especially young recent house purchasers with mortgages.
    The return on annuities is of course related to interest rates and recent annuitants have lost out as have savers.
    I suspect this is a temporary phenomenon and once the economy recovers interest rates will rise and offer a real rate of return.

  • rate this

    Comment number 132.



    Suppose a state pension of 6 grand was the result of investment (not as pay as the workers go) unimpaired single male 65 RPI

    Before the idiots destroyed the price of money - rate was over 8% after under 3% so you would have needed a fund of just 75K then, but a fund of 200K now (the average fund has remained the same at 33K).

    This is the destruction caused by the idiots (BoE).

  • rate this

    Comment number 131.

    I know "Misery" Indexes cannot reflect individual circumstances, but an article like this is so misleading for most people. Reading the national news about house prices, unemployment, and inflation is pointless, unless you are in a position to view the picture nationally and more importantly strategically which most people can't.

    This article Is only useful for the movers and shakers, not for me

  • rate this

    Comment number 130.

    Misery? Add worthless pensions:

    The vast majority put up with unpleasant jobs in the hope/expectation that they will one day retire on a decent pension. Unfortunately the idiots at the BoE have ensured that this expectation has now evaporated.

    Annuity rates have crashed & most ambitious people in the private sector have pension funds which will in the fullness of time be turned into annuities.

  • rate this

    Comment number 129.

    Post 128 should read 2007 not 1970

  • rate this

    Comment number 128.

    Perhaps Linda you should also add a few other factors to the misery index?
    1. The real decline in pensions and savings through the policy of QE.
    2. The real decline in the value of people's houses which for most people is over 30% since 1970.

    When you actually start working it out this government and the UK media by conspiracy are fleecing the people of thousands of £s pa

    See Max Keiser,

  • rate this

    Comment number 127.

    I wish BBC economists stopped quoting unemployment figures that have no meaning because of the millions of working age people dropping out of the work force and not claiming benefits. The true measure of the governments policies is the labour participation rates which are recorded in the USA. They won't measure it in the UK because the figures are too shocking.


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