Unemployment in the UK: What's in a number?

Picture of crane and job centre sign

What does Britain's unemployment rate tell you about the state of the economy?

Bank of England policy makers have had to grapple with that question, in considering how they might want to "guide" the markets' expectations. But they're not the only ones. For anyone who's concerned with how Britain's recovery is going to turn out, it's about the most important question there is.

Of course, governments have always been concerned with getting people into work. But in the 1960s and 1970s they learned to temper that enthusiasm for higher growth with a concern for inflation. In the long run, economists decided, fast growth couldn't deliver full employment, if the economy didn't have the underlying productive potential to match.

That's where the concept of the Natural, or Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment comes from - or NAIRU.

Idiot's guide

Yes, it is an ugly acronym, but when economists first started to talk about it, 30-40 years ago, the concept that there might be a "natural" rate of joblessness, seemed ugly to many people as well.

Long-term, governments like to think they can lower that natural rate, by raising skills levels, for example. But like most "structural" improvements to the economy, it's not quick.

Short term, the Bank of England is supposed to take the natural rate as fixed, and assume that the economy is getting close to full capacity when the rate of joblessness approaches that level.

As I noted in my last post, the Office for Budget Responsibility reckons Britain's "natural" rate is now about 5.4% - the rate of unemployment just before the economy peaked. Others like the OECD think it's higher.

It sounds simple enough. But the Bank's job has usually been made harder by the fact that growth only affected unemployment with a lag. If the MPC waited to see the level of unemployment rate that came from a given rate of growth, the risk was that the boom would already have got out of hand, meaning a painful time for the economy - including higher unemployment - to get things back on track.

So, central bankers ended up focussing more on output and less on unemployment - not because they didn't care about jobs but because what was happening to output now was likely to tell you quite a lot about what was going to happen to unemployment and capacity later on.

So much for the idiot's guide to the natural rate of unemployment and modern central banking. Why does any of this matter right now?

'Labour hoarding'

It matters because these days, the link between growth and unemployment is not just operating "with a lag" - it's not really operating at all. As I've discussed many many times here, employment has been rising, even in long periods when the economy was not.

Graphic from Goldman Sachs

At first it was possible to put the puzzle down to "'labour-hoarding" by employers, and a rise in self-employment and part-time work. The idea was that unemployment had not really fallen, it was merely being hidden by reductions in hours - and new "jobs" that were not really jobs.

But, increasingly, that explanation just doesn't wash. As Kevin Daly explains in a fascinating recent bit of research for Goldman Sachs, average hours worked have actually been quite high during this period.

Graphic from Goldman Sachs

In the UK, people are joining the active labour force, not leaving it. And self-employment is not rising any faster now than in the years before the crisis, when the standard link between output and employment was still working pretty well.

So what's driving the rise in employment, against the odds? I wrote about one big part of the explanation here a while ago - the falling relative cost of labour.

Later retirement

But Daly looks at the same numbers a slightly different way. It's true that real wages have been unusually weak in this period, he says, but what's just as striking, given everything that's happened, is that the supply of willing workers in the UK has gone up.

It makes sense, when you come to think about it: if it were rising employer demand for labour, for a given amount of output, that was driving the rise in numbers in work, you'd expect that higher demand to push up wages. In fact, the reverse has happened: employment has risen, as real wages have continued to fall. Especially over the last year or so.

He sees a number of reasons for this, the biggest being a shift towards later retirement which has accelerated in the past few years, perhaps partly due to legal changes like phasing out compulsory retirement and changing the state pension age for women.

Graphic from Goldman Sachs

You might wonder whether older people working longer could really explain all this, but it turns out that for anyone under 50, there hasn't really been much of a jobs 'puzzle'. The growth in employment in that younger part of the workforce has not been all that unusual.

Odd behaviour

What does any of this mean for the Bank of England? One key conclusion is that there might well be more slack in the economy than many people think. Daly and his colleagues reckon there might be as much as 4% or 5% of GDP's worth of spare capacity out there. That's well above the latest estimates from the OBR and others.

Another implication, relevant to the MPC and their guidance, is that the Bank might not have to worry that the odd behaviour of unemployment makes it a poor guide to Britain's short and medium term growth potential.

Some have said it doesn't make sense to use the unemployment rate as a "threshold", above which the Bank will promise not to raise interest rates - on the grounds that unemployment is now a poor guide to what's going on with the economy.

For example, if there were a lot of hidden unemployment - and/or the UK really had suffered a big permanent hit to its productive capacity as a result of the crisis - you might worry that growth would now become unsustainable, long before the threshold was reached.

That is still possible. It is also possible that the rate that the MPC sets will turn out to be too high. But the Daly view of what's happening with the labour market suggests that - whatever is going on under the surface - the rate of unemployment might well be as good a guide to the amount of slack in the UK economy as the Bank is likely to find.

Back to its roots

Think about it. If unemployment remains higher than expected because demand is weak, the Bank would probably want to keep interest rates lower for longer (other things being equal).

If, on the other hand, unemployment is staying high, just because more people are joining the workforce, the same probably applies, because more willing workers means more chance that prices will remain under control. It doesn't really matter which is right; the answer is still loose policy.

You might not ever find out exactly what the "natural rate" is. But, arguably, this view suggests that you have a better chance of finding out looking at the unemployment rate than by focussing on GDP and inflation alone.

We might look back, in a few years' time, and decide that all these experts got the UK jobs riddle wrong.

But, if the Bank does decide to put unemployment rate at the heart of its 'guidance' next week, you could say that it had just gone back to its modern roots: back to thinking that the test of a successful economic policy is whether it helps to give as many citizens as possible the chance of a decent job.

Stephanie Flanders Article written by Stephanie Flanders Stephanie Flanders Former economics editor

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  • rate this

    Comment number 103.

    If anyone seriously thinks that the actual amount of unemployed is 2.5m, they have been taken in by Tory lies.

    'Massaging' the figures was a Tory trait when they tripled the unemployed in the 80's, anyone remember the posters saying 'Labour isn't working' when just 1m were on the dole ?

    If you count all those who cannot claim dole and are shipped to other benefits, the actual figure would be 6m.

  • rate this

    Comment number 102.

    Headline unemployment figures, like headline GDP figures, are crude and often misleading, because they hide so much detail (% long-term unemployed, % part-time jobs, etc). Cameron before he was PM said he wanted to focus on wellbeing rather than GDP; of course that went the way of most campaign promises, but I'd settle for a move to GDP per head and average satisfaction with employment status.

  • rate this

    Comment number 101.


    Not the Govt's job to give people jobs, except for the job of Govt! What they can/should do is create climate for job creation.

    Inflation free econo-environment. Tax taken from earnings&profits&gains, not up front nor from other things. Provision of adequate infrastructure. Planning & providing for future&its needs rather than short-term reaction to lacks or crises.


  • rate this

    Comment number 100.

    @59 DA
    Hope the politicians read your post and take it on board. Think you are correct.

    Perhaps a minor & respectful crisis at the Polls in 2014 & 2015 will bring them to their senses. I fear what might happen if that does not occur. The trouble of summer 2011 might seem mild in comparison.

  • rate this

    Comment number 99.

    Go to a sheep farm. Look at a field of sheep and think about all the ways you could make money as a sheep farmer.

    You now know everything you need to know about the economic model in operation in the UK. From Enron to the bank bailout to Help to Buy to renewing Trident to Scottish Independence and unemployment benefits. Just ask "How does this policy help the rich?" and you won't go far wrong.

  • rate this

    Comment number 98.

    94, 97 Charles & TJHW

    I grew up in a different era. From an ordinary family, I did an apprenticeship (apprenticeships are not too far from Charles' idea). That didn't prevent me from finding my way into Oxbridge. Of course, I never became PM.

    Oh for the days of 1950's Tory socialism, before we drifted back to the pre-Victorian, neo-liberal world.

  • rate this

    Comment number 97.

    94.Charles Jurcich
    "What we need is a proper Job Guarantee to ensure that... unemployed workers [are] provided jobs by the govt"


    Ah, sheer heresy on so many counts CJ.

    a) That's socialism.

    b) It ignores the (completely adopted by the BBC) Principle Of Irreversibility Of Any Tory De-emancipation Of The Common People ("reforms").

    c) It would bring relief from relenless misery.

  • rate this

    Comment number 96.

    26.Tim Hill:

    I'm not sure why your post was marked down. Perhaps people don't like text style, but I'd say you were accurate from what I've seen.

    Debt and precarity can make people near slaves to poor employers. That's not real progress, so not much for a country to celebrate.

  • rate this

    Comment number 95.

    92.purple - "........surely these people must be fully qualified for the job. Properly trained. :)"

    They are - brn to "good" families, Eton/Oxbridge educated......that's the only training a nascent PM/Chancellor needs to be an expert in everything isn't it...???!!!

    I mean, real training/experience is for the plebs from the desolate wastelands in the provinces.....

  • rate this

    Comment number 94.

    93 Wolfie
    What we need is a proper Job Guarantee to ensure that not only are unemployed workers provided jobs by the govt, but these jobs include a high level of general training. The skills for most good jobs can only be learnt in a working environment, not the classroom. The neoliberals were the ones who replaced full employment with full employability - it's a deadend.

  • rate this

    Comment number 93.

    Unemployment on this blog and a £ 1 million salary on RP's.

    Don't we have to do more (an example is NJ's @91) to make all our society more employable and strengthen their capacity to find work?

    I sometimes fear that there's a hidden agenda to keep the poor, badly educated & demotivated exactly where they are.

    I'd say again, look at & learn from what the Germans & Scandanavians do.

  • rate this

    Comment number 92.

    I have yet to identify the training course for PM or Chancellor, surely these people must be fully qualified for the job. Properly trained. :)

  • rate this

    Comment number 91.

    An error in government thinking is that the potential for training and education stop at age 21, fixing an individual's job prospects from then on. The result, those who have not achieved work qualifications by that age are condemned to spending the next 40 plus years in very low paid work or on benefits. Clearly education should not be limited by age if full productive employment is the goal.

  • rate this

    Comment number 90.


    Pensions are savings. They are being leveraged. Not by savers. That sort of interesting?

  • rate this

    Comment number 89.

    87 Megan
    I suspect most people will be made redundant or face redundancy at least once in their working lives.

  • rate this

    Comment number 88.

    Disposable savings play a part in understanding the economy. Sensible finance requires that sensible credit. 100% mortgages are dumb when 40% of purchase price is builders profit.

    There is saving to spend, saving for deposits and a number of factors govern this type of economic slack such as willingness and ability to spend. If savers begin to leverage savings, interesting things might occur :)

  • rate this

    Comment number 87.

    It isn't a bald statistic: it is the theft of a future, cheating of all hope from those who cannot find work - and even worse, face abuse from both the government that fails to help them and from unthinking commentators who live in a different universe where there's no chance of their hard work being dismissed in an instant by redundancy.

  • rate this

    Comment number 86.

    An interesting piece, Stephanie.
    Will the mandate of the central bank change to targeting the unemployment rate as in the US, overturning the last vestiges of the previous orthodoxy that unemployment is a price worth paying.
    In fact unemployment is a deadweight which prevents the economy from growing and also helps the development of imbalances.

  • rate this

    Comment number 85.

    One way of contemplating slack within our current economic climate is in the draw down of savings and contraction in added savings. Slack in that context is elastic and operates as a double edged sword. Savings are the slack because they represent potential consumption within a contracting economy, and, make no mistake ~ our economy is at a standstill and will stay there while it contracts :)

  • rate this

    Comment number 84.

    The ultimate reality is longevity and retirement. The long growing investment in pensions and savings should lead to a situation a la derivatives with pot so large that it cannot be funded from income.

    I believe that it is impossible for Central Banks to increase interest rates. The business cycle is dead. China does not have a vast pensions investment yet but will never be able to finance one.


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