India's ancient university returns to life

Nalanda is emerging from the ruins as an image of India's rising power

It was an eminent centre of learning long before Oxford, Cambridge and Europe's oldest university Bologna were founded.

Nalanda University in northern India drew scholars from all over Asia, surviving for hundreds of years before being destroyed by invaders in 1193.

The idea of Nalanda as an international centre of learning is being revived by a group of statesmen and scholars led by the Nobel prize winning economist, Amartya Sen,

The group wants to establish a new world-class residential university with top students and researchers from around the world, on a site close to ruins of the ancient Buddhist institution in the Indian state of Bihar.

The new Nalanda International University will focus on the humanities, economics and management, Asian integration, sustainable development and oriental languages.

Old foundations

But building a top university from scratch, let alone one in a poor under-developed part of India, is a tall order.

Some doubt that an international university can flourish in such an under-developed area.

"Are top students and faculty going to be attracted to rural Bihar?" says Philip Altbach, director of the Centre for International Higher Education at Boston College in the United States.

Amartya Sen Nobel laureate Amartya Sen is the university's first chancellor

Amartya Sen, the university's chancellor, is undaunted.

"Our job is to get the new Nalanda University going and establish the teaching. This is just the beginning - the old Nalanda took 200 years to come to a flourishing state. We may not take 200 years but it will take some decades."

"After Nalanda was destroyed in the 1190s it lingered on for a while - from time to time some people noticed that there was some teaching going on in the following couple of hundred years, but it wasn't anything like the university it had been. There is now absolutely nothing. We have to start from scratch."

In 2006, India, China, Singapore, Japan and Thailand announced the plan to revive the university based on the vision of the old Nalanda. And it was backed by the East Asia Summit which also includes South East Asian countries, Australia, New Zealand, Russia and the US.

International staff

The new university will be built in Rajgir, 10 kilometres from the ancient site with buildings planned on old Buddhist principles.

For now temporary premises have been secured and the postgraduate university has already published invitations to research fellows and scholars from around the world.

Dalai Lama The Dalai Lama has spoken of the historic importance of Nalanda

The first two faculties will be history and ecology and the environment with the first intake of students due next year.

Prof Sen says there will be active co-operation with Yale's school of forestry studies, Bangkok's Chulalongkorn University department of history, Seoul University in South Korea and Peking University in China.

This international outlook could boost India's higher education sector which is seen as inward looking and less internationalised than other countries in Asia, including China.

The new Nalanda will be "Asian in inspiration, Asian in motivation but it is not Asian in terms of its knowledge or the range or expertise or personal involvement. If the knowledge works in Asia, it ought to work in Africa or Latin America as well," said Prof Sen.

If all goes well, it will do Nalanda's ancient reputation proud despite the intervening 800 years.

'Soaring into the clouds'

Founded around the 5th Century, Nalanda once had over 10,000 students, mostly Buddhist monks, many of them from China, Japan, Korea and countries across south-east, central and western Asia.

The Chinese monk Xuanzang, who studied there in the 7th Century, left behind an eye-popping account of the thriving, wealthy university, describing a nine-storey library "soaring into the clouds."

Shanghai-based author Mishi Saran followed Xuanzang's route across Asia in her book Chasing the Monk's Shadow.

Start Quote

It could show that India is present in Asia not only economically and militarily but also intellectually”

End Quote Prof Sukh Deo Muni

"Xuanzang was looking to study with the people who knew the (Buddhist) texts best. Nalanda was already reaching the heights of its power and prestige. It was known in Korea and Japan - its reputation had spread through the Asian trade routes," she said.

"When Xuanzang was at Nalanda, it was a vibrant place, packed with scholars, with seminars, teaching and debate. It was a kind of Buddhist Ivy League institution - all the deepest ideas about Buddhism were explored and dissected at Nalanda," said Ms Saran.

The influence of those scholars has survived to this day. While at the Jaipur literary festival in Rajasthan in January, the Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama said "the source of all the [Buddhist] knowledge we have, has come from Nalanda."

The new Nalanda hopes to match the intellectual rigour, but will not be a religious institution.

"Nalanda was not only interested in Buddhism. Even at that time it took from universal principles. It had secular studies, public health, it was interested in logic, astrology and mathematics and languages," said George Yeo, a former Singaporean Foreign Minister and head of the Nalanda international advisory panel.

Nonetheless, the "spirit of Nalanda" is part of the attraction. Nearby, the Buddha achieved enlightenment under the Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya.

'Severe doubts'

But Prof Altbach, an expert on world-class universities, has "severe doubts" about the location.

"The site of an academic institution is important," he said. Nalanda "may attract a certain number of big thinkers, but academics like to be where the infrastructure is. They want culture and amenities and coffee shops, and a wider community of intellectuals than that on campus".

Yet Bihar, has also emerged as India's fastest growing state with economic growth of 12% last year.

Orwell's birthplace, Bihar State, India The writer George Orwell was also born in Bihar, northern India

"The countryside looked arid and impoverished. Today there are lush fields. The shops are fuller, the saris have become brighter," said Mr Yeo.

The university itself will help to develop the region, working with some 60 surrounding villages to improve livelihoods in agriculture and tourism, according to Nand Kishore Singh, a member of parliament from Bihar and a member of Nalanda's governing body.

The next two faculties to be put in place will be information technology, and management and economics which will help develop job opportunities "to enable Bihar to catch up with the rest of India", said Prof Sen.

Already a huge amount of infrastructure is planned for Bihar, including roads and an international airport at Gaya, with the Bihar State government fully committed to the university project.

But "building a top-class university is extraordinarily expensive, especially in a rural and undeveloped location, even with assistance of foreign donors and the central government", said Prof Altbach.

Soft power, hard cash

While the land has been provided by the state of Bihar, the Nalanda's supporters estimate around $1bn (£650m) will be needed. Even that is seen as a modest sum compared to some of the world's major universities.

Australia is funding a dean-level chair of ecology and environment. Singapore will design, build and donate library costing up to $7m (£4.5m). Thailand will contribute $100,000 (£65,000), and China has announced $1m (£650,000) in aid for construction.

"I don't see any dearth of money in the region but they are nowhere near the $1bn endowment, so far not many countries have come forward with their huge purses," said Sukh Deo Muni, a former Indian envoy to Laos and visiting professor at the Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore.

Prof Sen blames India's notorious red tape for holding up funds. But Nalanda will be built up slowly, faculty by faculty rather than having everything at once, he said.

Even its strongest critics admit the idea of a new Nalanda is a viable one. "A country like India must jump on it. It could show that India is present in Asia not only economically and militarily but also intellectually," said Prof Muni.

Others share that bigger vision that will sees Asia asserting itself on the world stage by projecting soft power.

"I'm hoping this project can bring China and India closer together, two great countries, representing two great civilisations of East Asia and South Asia," said Mr Yeo.

But even he admits resurrecting Nalanda "will be a challenge and there is no guarantee that we will succeed. The conception is grand but the implementation will be arduous".

Will a new university such as Nalanda be able to succeed and establish its reputation? How should India and other Asian countries expand and develop their university systems? Here are some of your comments.

I think if the new Nalanda University is established with the ancient subjects like history, geography, martial arts, maths, science, language and literature (not the new age subjects) and remains very focused and disciplined in a holistic way, it will be definitely become a respected institution. Also, it should be an autonomous body where politics in management should be strictly not allowed. I think then it will be like my dream come true, but how that would be in today's Bihar, is a big challenge (and there are people like myself who like challenges).

Vandana, Gwalior, India

I think it is an excellent idea. India is an old and important culture and the world's academic system needs to move itself out of its European Anglo- American mindset. Academic activity is made feasible through culture, not coffee-shops and urban environment. These will always follow as naturally as thunder follows lightning.

Marianne, Rome, Italy

Revival of Nalanda in a true sense is a beginning of Asian Renaissance. Once the centre of learning and wisdom Nalanda had to go through the darkest of experiences. It may take a century to bring the university the similar life as hundreds of years ago but Nalanda will once again stand tall and will bring lights to Asia and rest of the world.

Basu, Kathmandu, Nepal

If Banaras Hindu University could be built without the then governments' support by effort of Mr Madan Mohan Malviya there is no reason why Mr Amartya Sen cannot succeed. It is a grand vision and support should be sought from all.

N C Mishra, Jamshedpur, India

Reviving Nalanda as a centre of learning is ambitious and grand. But this should not be a priority, at least for the government of India. Vast number of students apply for very few places in top universities and institutes at present. The Indian government should instead be ploughing money to increase capacity at these institutes to address the short term needs of the country.

Ubaid, Southampton, UK

An extremely noble and emotional try, but an equally tough do. Difficult to work backwards from the great Pyramids of Giza to an Egypt like it was under Khafre, just because someone is emotionally moved to revive the Egypt that built the great pyramids. Nalanda was different time, different dynamics. Leave the ruins be, but preserve the heritage as best as can be done. It would be an achievement if less bricks get pilfered from sites like these. If Prof Sen can, maybe he can try and build up a Cambridge in Delhi. From the scratch. Will take less time and effort perhaps...

Basistha, India

Last year I undertook some research in Bihar and also had the pleasure of visiting Nalanda. It's a tourist attraction at the moment, but is hard to reach and the surrounding areas are relatively underdeveloped. These plans could help regenerate the local area and help to improve peoples' living conditions. It will take time, but may help the State grow and bring additional opportunities for development.

Steven, Rugby, UK

A very noble job from a Nobel laureate

Sushanta, Edmonton, Canada

With all due respect, Prof. Altbach's comes off less expert and more elitist with this comment: "...academics like to be where the infrastructure is. They want culture and amenities and coffee shops, and a wider community of intellectuals than that on campus".Really? You need coffee shops, and culture, and amenities to be able to discourse? As an academic, I am affronted by this sweeping generalization that my peers and I will not engage in intellectual discourse unless these lures are available. It is the people that will serve as the attraction Prof. Altbacjh, not coffee shops and amenities. Maybe you should engage in discourse under the shade of the Bodhi tree, sipping on a cup of chai, before you negate the potential of this venture. A daunting task, yes. But if academics focus on creature comforts over content and conversation, what hope is there for the rest of us?

Vidya, Gwalior, India

I just wanted to correct something here. The beginning of the article gives the impression that Nalanda predated all European institutions of higher learning. Not so. The Pandidakterion of Magnaura in Constantinople was founded in the same century as Nalanda, long before other European universities. The labeling of Bologna as the first European university is highly debatable. If we stick to the very restrictive definition of "university" that is used to justify this claim, we could never call Nalanda a university. Of course this is a minor point that should not distract us from applauding the revival of Nalanda.

Jason, Toronto, Canada

Great thought and I see no reason that it won't be successful. Vision and faith create wonders. A strong will power and world support can create a place for the world to learn and know the history along with other old and modern faculties. I have asked this question to myself a several times that why Nalanda was destroyed and why no one has or is doing anything about it. I am very glad that things are shaping up now, and I am sure whole India and world will support it in every possible way, so finance should not be a problem. Great Respect for Amritya Sen

Aashish, Jaipur, Rajasthan

History is the base for future wisdom.People across the world learn from the past and that very same past is the foundation of comming events.Today when the world is divided into ideologies and school of thoughts,the only country which has given the world most schools of thought is India.Buddhist principles deal with improving self conduct and putting oneself as an example for others to follow. Nalanda if revived would be a great source for such conduct and world peace.

Rishi, Pune, India

Reinstating Nalanda would indeed be an exemplifying achievement, especially in a country where heritage conservation does not attract the general population who are pressed with more mundane issues of day to day life. It would be a step in the right direction to preserve the academic initiative the country had once taken,Nalanda didn't cease to exist because it was not economically sustainable or not fit for its purpose- it was destroyed and its demise came in an untimely manner. It would be only just to give it another chance to regain its reputation and conduct high level of academic activity in the region where it is situated. It must however, embrace the requirements of the modern times and I am sure with the involvement of the likes of Prof.Sen,it would be steered in the right direction. I have no doubt that the location is indeed a challenge but it would be naive to let an underdeveloped region to be so, in the midst of all sorts of developmental plans for the rest of the country. Given the funding attracted for his noble cause, it would stir up the economic activity in the region- that in itself is a start. It is by no means a small task, but one that will take the fate of the university and the region of the country in the right direction, of course, with the right level of co-operation from the administration and society. So skeptics have you doubts but do let this happen brick by brick, faculty by faculty.

Shrijit, Brighton, UK

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