Greece: Euro exit delayed?

An EU and Greek flag flutter in front of the Parthenon, Athens

In the immediate aftermath of Greece's unexpected victory over Russia at the Euros, the former Arsenal defender Lee Dixon is reported by my friends on Twitter to have said "you have to give the Greeks credit".

Actually the bankers to whom I speak would disagree with this analysis of Greece's fiscal difficulties. They would say that the country still has far too much debt and the last thing it needs is to borrow yet more. What needs to happen, if Greece is to remain in the eurozone in the longer term - they say - is for eurozone governments and the European Central Bank to write off a big slug of what they are owed.

What Greece needs is equity, not credit.

In case you have forgotten during the turmoil of what has since transpired, Greece's private-sector lenders agreed in the spring to let the Greek government off around 100bn euros of principal repayments.

But even with that massive and unprecedented cancelling of the debt of a developed economy, the total debt of the Greek government is estimated by the International Monetary Fund to be falling from an eye-watering 161% of GDP in 2011 to a still totally unsustainable 153% of GDP in 2012 - from where it is forecast to bounce back to 161% of GDP next year.

On current projections, Greece will remain the second most indebted economy of any size, as far as the eye can see. And pretty much all historical precedent would suggest the Greek economy cannot recover under this kind of debt burden (see Rogoff and Reinhart's Debt Overhangs: Past and Present for more on this).

And yet there is no suggestion that a write-down of the 161bn euros owed by Greece to eurozone governments and the 50bn euros owed to the European Central Bank is on the negotiating table.

Following the Greeks' unenthusiastic backing for the conservative New Democracy Party to form a new government, the noises from New Democracy is that it wants an extra two years to implement spending cuts and tax rises - the austerity programme - whereas the German government may be prepared to offer an extension of the repayment date on Greece's vast debt.

Neither dare talk about what many would say is the only thing that matters - the quantum of what Greece owes.

That's partly because forgiving Greece its official debts might well cause fury among German taxpayers - currently owed almost 90bn euros by the Greek state, if Bundesbank funding of lending by the Greek central bank is included (the so-called Target2 balance).

It's also because although Germany could probably afford a 50% writedown of what it's owed, given the strength of its economy and public finances (the writedown, excluding the Target2 credit, would be equivalent to just over 1% of its GDP), the same probably can't be said of Spain, Italy or even France (where the writedown costs would also be around 1% of GDP).

And there is a fear that debt forgiveness for Greece would be the thin end of a very thick wedge, such that Ireland - for example - might argue that if Greece were getting what would in effect be a large transfer from the rest of the eurozone, it would like a bit of that too, thank you very much.

All of which suggests that the eurozone will continue to expect Greece to honour all its massive debts.

But even before the latest worsening in the eurozone's more general crisis, the IMF was projecting that Greece's economy would shrink by 4.7% this year and stagnate in 2013. Unless there is some kind of miraculous recovery, the question will continue to loom large for Greek people and leaders whether they should try to escape a crushing debt burden by leaving the eurozone.

Robert Peston Article written by Robert Peston Robert Peston Economics editor

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  • rate this

    Comment number 282.

    United Dreamer @281

    What would you say?

    To pan-European income-equality

    Shared responsibility to create value

    Rule of conscience, not fear & greed

    Nationalisation of land and banking

    Stewardship rather than 'ownership'

    GNPs irrelevant to sane investment

    Fair start-up chances plus efficiency

    Today, just for your entertainment!

    A fine day here

    Wish it could be for all.

  • rate this

    Comment number 281.

    #279 lesx - how would that impact on German held debts? Wouldn't that increase the level of debt by the Germanyless Eurozone?

    #280 goenzoy - its clear that Germany is a huge part of the Eurozone problem. Their essentially under-priced goods subsidising their manufacturing output are one end of the scale.

  • rate this

    Comment number 280.


    Germany is certainly not the problem within the Eurozone.So a REMOVAL is as senseless as it can get.

    Also a 20% devalue will not help any of the PIIGS

  • rate this

    Comment number 279.

    Lateral thinking to solve the Euro crisis. All Eurozone countries drop out of the Euro together. 1 sec later the New Euro comes into force- same rules but New Eurozone countries initially exclude Germany. As the existing Euro no longer exists the New Euro coinage is identical to the existing Euro but without Germany will be devalued by say 20%. Great news for Greece, Spain, even France. .

  • rate this

    Comment number 278.

    Barrosso's recent comments smack of panic - the EU is under assault for action and he can't deliver.
    We are in the hands of civil servants making policy suggestions to be approved or vetoed by elected leaders based on narrow national interest.The civil servants masquerading as leaders then present, and try to justify, the decisions as collective policy.
    This is no way to manage a global crisis.

  • rate this

    Comment number 277.

    "Antonis Samaras, and others besides have had to commit themselves – in writing – to implement all the cuts demanded, regardless of who wins the next general election."
    Try negotiating from there...

  • rate this

    Comment number 276.

    The only good news to come out of this election is that the troika has no excuse to cut funding to Gre., which looks suspiciously like what it wanted.

    ND has been elected on a weasel platform, as it too has stated that it will renegotiate bailout terms from a position of weakness.
    Well K. Samara, they've said they're not budging. As Steve Marriott would have said, "Whatcha gonna do about it?"

  • rate this

    Comment number 275.

    A fragile Greek Government is not going to last.
    The paymaster of Europe - Germany is not going to give anymore to Greece.
    The Eurocrats will fudge and waste time, kicking the ball down the street.
    There will be tears, but the only answer is that the Northern Europeans stick with a Northern Euro; and the South to return to their own currencies OR have a Southern Euro.

  • rate this

    Comment number 274.

    Everyone has an opinion on the problems facing Greece.
    But the only opinion that means something,is that of,the Greek Electorate.
    And the Money Men are quite well aware of that fact.Money to be made helping the Greek people.Money to be lost if they do nothing.
    What does it matter if there is no money to pay the bills?
    Have a few more Millions to keep you going.

  • rate this

    Comment number 273.

    I f the architects of Bretton Woods could have seen where their flawed plans would ultimately lead then surely they would have had different agreements put in.

    Or were they simply dumb bankers?

    Or economists, or simply dumb.

    Perhaps they knew what the outcome was to be and simply let rip.

    Perhaps cross border investment banking should be banned?
    Or curtailed.

    Something has to give however..

  • rate this

    Comment number 272.

    We seem to have created a situation where the markets have us all by the short and curlies

    nowdays one has to explain everything twice, once for countries with a proper currency & then for the Eurozone

    EZ countries have no choice but borrow from the markets. For the others, its their choice, there is no requirement in economic theory to borrow spending money from the markets

  • rate this

    Comment number 271.

    Has anyone told them its probably best if they left in an orderly manner. Next time ( which there won't be ) don't drink so much

  • rate this

    Comment number 270.

    Surely the obvious thing for Greece to do is to go into liquidation then relaunch itself as "The Greece" and bandy the word 'newco' about.

  • Comment number 269.

    All this user's posts have been removed.Why?

  • rate this

    Comment number 268.

    #259 AMET A Eurocrat is a person who can withstand any amount of pain as long as it isn't their own..

    What is( may) be going on isn't about 'the money' any more, but an old story about old verities --- we may be getting close to that Ceausescu moment on the balcony when realisation dawns that a profound misjudgement has been made.... and what used to work just doesn't any's great!!

  • rate this

    Comment number 267.

    Just a thought.

    Those doctors that fitted PIP implants in their private surgeries, at a bonus price, now demand the tax payer picks up the bill (NHS).

    Why is this not reported in the same way.

  • rate this

    Comment number 266.

    It's about Right and Wrong really---money has been a useful metaphor for us to use to avoid talking about right and wrong.

    Like communists in 1989, Germans in 1945 , Americans in 1972, Incas in 1533- it's our bad luck/good luck to be here when the realisation dawns that the stories we have used usefully for a while no longer function effectively..

  • rate this

    Comment number 265.

    It's not even amusing any more, a pass-the-parcel Euro train wreck

    This week Greece

    Next week Spain

    Then Portugal? or Italy?

    Then maybe even France?

    Euroland is toast

  • rate this

    Comment number 264.

    #239 "the facts are against you Justin150."

    Which "facts" would those be? You have provided no evidence - whereas I have, you can check the SEC filings if you like

  • rate this

    Comment number 263.

    Hope Greek do well in the football.


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