Italy: Nearer the precipice

Silvio Berlusconi

It is getting messier for Italy.

In spite of Silvio Berlusconi doing what many investors wanted - announcing he will stand down as premier - the implicit price that Italy has to pay to borrow has risen again, nearer to dangerously unaffordable rates.

This morning the interest rate - the yield - on one year loans to the Italian government rose from 6.4% to 6.63%, and there was a rather smaller rise to 6.79% in the rate on 10-year loans or bonds (before a slight retreat back to 6.76%).

These are (again) euro era highs for these implicit interest rates - very worrying for a government with more than 1.8 trillion euros of debt (and see my earlier note for more on the damaging financial impact of such yield increases).

What this means is that the cost for Italy of borrowing is becoming dangerously close to the 7% threshold, which the precedent of Ireland, Portugal and Greece suggests would mean that Italy would be unable to avoid an official rescue.

To put it in simple terms, if Italy had to pay an average interest rate of 7% on the whole of its debt - which would only happen over years, since it borrows at fixed rates for fixed periods - that would add a crippling 70bn euros to its annual interest bill.

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The subtler, more important point, is that when the implicit interest rate rises to that kind of level, investors know that a country with big debts can't afford to repay what it owes, so they stop lending to said country, they go on strike. No one wants to lend to a country when that country would use the loan to pay the interest on previous loans - that's throwing good money after bad.

To state the obvious, a lenders' strike would be lethal for a country like Italy, which has to borrow 362bn euros next year (according to Bloomberg data) simply to pay interest and existing debts falling due.

So what's the specific reason this morning for the spike in Italy's implicit interest rate?

Well it is because the organisation through which investors clear or settle their bond transactions, LCH.Clearnet, has announced that those trading in Italian bonds have to deposit more cash with it to cover the risks of non-payment.

In essence, it means that LCH.Clearnet has decided that the risks of trading in Italian government debt have increased. And the important point is that by insisting that those trading in the bonds put up more "margin", that they deposit more cash with LCH.Clearnet to cover the risks, LCH.Clearnet has made it more expensive to trade in Italian debt.

That is this morning's explanation for why the price of that debt has fallen and the yield or implicit interest rate on it has risen.

The increase in the margin, or deposits required, is significant. For 10-year bonds, it has gone up from 6.65% of the sum trade to 11.65%, a rise of 75%.

For one-year loans, the increase is even bigger, in proportionate terms, from 2.45% to 6.45%.

LCH.Clearnet has taken the action in part because the gap has widened between the yield on Italian bonds and the yield on a basket of sovereign AAA bonds (ie government debt that has the highest credit rating).

What it all shows is that Italy's financial woes are unlikely to be solved in the short term by when and whether a new government is formed in Rome.

Investors need to see that the eurozone has the resources to lend to Italy in the event that no one else will. And right now they've noticed that progress on expanding the European Financial Stability Facility, the bailout fund, is painfully slow.

I am told it will be weeks or months before we can be confident that the resources of this fund have been increased from 440bn euros to a trillion euros. The technical work on this is, according to an official, is proving to be painfully slow.

And, as readers of this column know, there are plenty of investors who believe that a trillion euros is anyway about half what's required to persuade them that the eurozone really has the muscle to prevent Italy sliding to default.

Update 09:57: The yield on the Italian 10-year bond has now risen through the 7% level that precedent suggests means Italy will have to seek emergency funds from the eurozone.

The problem, as I said earlier, is that right now there is not enough in the kitty of the bailout fund, the European Financial Stability Facility, with only around 250bn euros left, of the original 440bn euros.

So this is a serious crisis.

I am told that the chief executive of the fund, Klaus Regling, is due to produce proposals in the next week or two to increase the firepower of the fund to 1 trillion euros or so - by using its resources to guarantee or insure loans.

Will markets give him a week or two to come up with the plan? That does not look likely right now.

Update 10:04: There has also been a remarkable inversion in the Italian debt yield curve, with Italian bonds of shorter maturity - including 1-year loans - all yielding more than 7% now.

This shows that investors believe that short-term risks of holding Italian debt have risen quite considerably.

Robert Peston Article written by Robert Peston Robert Peston Economics editor

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  • rate this

    Comment number 18.

    Why do you think Greece and Italy are in such a mess . Its because their political systems are broken and are incapable of setting the right sustainable policies.

  • rate this

    Comment number 17.


    "Who would have thought it? Oh yes, that's right me in 1992"

    Except it's not the Euro that's the problem - it's Capitalism - otherwise it would just be a Euro crisis - not a worldwide problem (which it is). I mean is Iceland in the Euro? Is Hungary?

    You're just a Europhobe looking for a convenient scapegoat - your precious system is collapsing and you have foolishly so much invested in it

  • rate this

    Comment number 16.

    Barclays calculates that Italy is already beyond the point of now return ( )

    That said, it's state debt that's high in Italy, not personal debt so there is room for quick improvement, a bit like Iceland.

    BTW: It's been calculated that most of the Greek bailout money ends in non-Greek financials.

  • rate this

    Comment number 15.

    Silvio was wrongly named at birth. I think he should have been called Nero. If I remember my history Nero liked Bunga Bunga while Rome incinerated!

  • rate this

    Comment number 14.

    Robert - it would help to distinguish between the govt and the country.

    "if [Italian Govt] had to pay an average interest rate of 7% on the whole of its debt - which would only happen over years, since it borrows at fixed rates for fixed periods - that would add a crippling 70bn euros to its annual interest bill.

    About half of the interest payments stay in the country.

  • rate this

    Comment number 13.

    Italy could ( in theory ) be sorted out as it has a strong economy. Spain and Portugal do not and the fundamentals there are looking increasingly serious. If it wasn't for Italy they would be on the front page now. Look at the increase in mortgage default, bank bad debts, unemployment, regional budget overspend etc etc. It's all going down the pan rather quickly.

  • rate this

    Comment number 12.

    Robert - IT'S OVER.

    They have gone over the edge - it was obvious it was going to happen 2 YEARS AGO, this is why I said it at the time.

    The rich must be protected at all costs - the police need armoured cars against children to do this. I hope those 'freedom loving capitalists' are proud our streets now look more like Syria than London with armoured cars and police blockades.

  • rate this

    Comment number 11.

    The Euro debacle is a train crash in slow motion.

    Why would overseas investors such as China buy Euro sovereign debt from the EFSF when Germany won't stump up the cash that it should?

    I wouldn't touch EU sovereign debt with a barge pole.

  • rate this

    Comment number 10.

    In a full-scale crisis, I think that Germany would extend bilateral support to Italy, but probably not Spain, and certainly not GIP. This reflects Italy's size and status as a founding EU member.

  • rate this

    Comment number 9.

    Wow, it turns out that the Euro would never work because it contained too many members who spent like there was no tomorrow. Who would have thought it? Oh yes, that's right me in 1992. Hopefully the Euro collapse will result in the end of the European Union.

  • rate this

    Comment number 8.

    Rubber bullets available to the enforcement forces in London.

  • rate this

    Comment number 7.

    I would to say that the bond market is almost playing politics here... removing whoever it wishes... and who "controls" the bond market... because it seems almost deliberate... By the way...why the rating Agencies are "strategically" so quiet now ? Now that they "set fire on the barn"...and the horse are squealing inside.... When they going to put more fire on the barn...?

  • rate this

    Comment number 6.

    I don't think Italy is in the same boat as the other peripherals - its total debt to GDP is lower (i.e. high government debt is offset by relatively low private debt) and it didn't experience a credit / property boom and bust during the noughties. Italy had problems beore it joined the euro!

  • rate this

    Comment number 5.

    One must ask why a renowned business person who is put in charge of a country's economy, ends up wrecking that country.
    Is this not an example of today's business leaders.
    These people who are pictured as supermen....
    The plain truth is that they are only human beings like the rest of us.
    This should be a lesson...

    Business leaders are not the be all and end all.

  • rate this

    Comment number 4.

    Presumably Italy does not need the 362bn Euros on the 1/1/12 so there is degree of hype in the presentation. If the reaction is draconian austerity this will go to disable Italy from paying its way. The answer must be action by the EFSF and the ECB. GO will hope the IMF are not brought into this. One 'austerity' measure that would help is a wealth tax impacting on the top 15%.

  • rate this

    Comment number 3.

    The underlying reality is that nothing much has changes in any country. The whole sorry saga of first Greece then Italy then.. then.. is driven by the speculative activity in the banking & financial sector: just becasue the light is being put on Italy today means only that the speculators are winning.

    Do we really want a World held to ransom by speculators?

    No. We need to stand up to them!

  • rate this

    Comment number 2.

    The whole of Europe is sliding towards disaster. Nationalism and its friend, extremism, await if the Eurozone collapses.

    Fortunately, we can sleep easy knowing that the steady hand of Sarkozy is in full control of the situation.

    The UK's official position? Do nothing, something (perhaps Chinese money) might turn up. Or we could have a small war against Iran. If not, it's not our fault.

  • rate this

    Comment number 1.

    Going, Going, Going! It is just a question of which one will go first.

    My money used to be on Ireland but the other PIIGS are trying very hard to take the lead on this.

    Or you can look at it another way, which is that they are all trying to hunker down so far as to take themselves out of the firing line. Then someone pops their head up to see what is happening and bang they are hit!


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