G20 'agrees to boost' International Monetary Fund


President Obama says that the G20 must focus on the European financial crisis

The Group of 20 leaders have agreed to increase the firepower of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

It means the Fund will be more able to support struggling eurozone economies.

French President Nicolas Sarkozy confirmed that most talks had revolved around the eurozone crisis.

In Greece, Prime Minister George Papandreou has defied calls to resign ahead of a vote of confidence on Friday. He has said he may scrap a plan for a referendum on the bailout deal.

Mr Papandreou's surprise decision on Monday to hold a national vote sparked turmoil on financial markets and upset his German and French counterparts.

However, facing opposition from his own finance minister, on Thursday the prime minister said he would scrap the referendum if the conservative opposition party voted to pass the bailout package in parliament.

But the opposition as well as several government MPs have called for Mr Papandreou to quit and there are fears that he may lose the confidence vote.

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Eurozone leaders have for the first time (in my memory) publicly conceded that it is possible to leave the eurozone”

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The debt crisis also continues to threaten the much bigger Italian economy.

Rome has been finding it increasingly difficult to borrow money in financial markets, and the Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi, has been called upon by some of his own MPs to quit.

China reticence

In other developments on the first day of the two-day G20 summit in Cannes:

  • US President Barack Obama warned that the eurozone financial crisis threatened to engulf the world
  • Italy is to commit to further cuts to its debts and its annual borrowing rate according to a draft communique
  • China indicated that it would not consider providing money to the eurozone bailout fund until the situation in Greece has been resolved
  • Chinese President Hu Jintao also played down the chance of allowing the value of the yuan to rise, contradicting more optimistic remarks by the US

Nicolas Sarkozy: ''Morally this (financial transaction) tax is something that we just can't overlook in our search for solutions''

  • India and Canada expressed their opposition to the idea of a tax on financial transactions, something strongly backed by eurozone governments
  • the G20 agreed to look at the credit default swaps markets, which has been blamed by some European leaders for exacerbating the eurozone debt crisis
Euro exit

Eurozone leaders had wanted to present the G20 with a clear action plan, but Greece has thrown this into disarray.

Eurozone governments struck a deal with Greece last week for a debt write-down and to bolster Europe's bailout fund and support the banking sector.

But it is feared that the package may yet unravel.

The French and German leaders, and Mr Papandreou himself, openly talked for the first time of the possibility of Greece leaving the euro if it is unable to ratify the bailout package.

On Thursday, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said that the stability of the eurozone was more important than Greece's continued membership of it.

The view was echoed by Mr Sarkozy, who warned: "We cannot accept the explosion of the euro, which would be the explosion of Europe."

Eurozone leaders made clear that the next 8bn-euro tranche of bailout money would not be released to Greece until after any referendum had been held.

Angela Merkel: ''The referendum is about nothing else than the question does Greece want to stay in the eurozone? Yes or no''

On Thursday, the Greek finance minister, Evangelos Venizelos - who led an internal government revolt against Mr Papandreou's referendum plan - said the government still had enough cash to get by without the bailout loan until 15 December.

Pressure on Italy

There was continuing unease on the bond markets, with Italy and Spain forced to pay higher interest rates in order to borrow billions of euros.

Many economists fear that if Greece does exit the euro, it could lead to financial contagion, as investors and ordinary bank depositors in other eurozone countries may fear that their own government will follow suit.

The biggest fears surround Italy, whose economy and debts dwarf those of Greece.

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A eurozone without Greece is no longer necessarily the worst outcome”

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Italy's one-year cost of borrowing has risen to 5.1%, its highest since joining the euro, and far above the mere 0.3% interest rate that Germany must pay.

The country's cost of borrowing has continued to rise despite interventions by the European central bank to buy up Italian debts.

Just like Athens, Rome is under pressure from European counterparts to implement further economic reforms and austerity. But also as in Greece, this is undermining the political cohesion of the government.

Six Italian government MPs wrote an open letter on Thursday calling on Mr Berlusconi to make way for a transitional government.

The Italian cabinet agreed a limited package of budget reforms at an emergency meeting on Wednesday evening.

But they failed to agree to issue a decree implementing the changes, meaning that they must now go to a confidence vote in parliament - one that Mr Berlusconi may be at risk of losing.

Asian exporters

Agreement was reached among G20 leaders to increase the resources of the IMF, according to a draft communique seen by the Reuters news agency.

There are no details as to how much more money governments would give it.

Crisis jargon buster
Use the dropdown for easy-to-understand explanations of key financial terms:
The best credit rating that can be given to a borrower's debts, indicating that the risk of borrowing defaulting is minuscule.

"There is a broad view among G20 there does need to be additional financing," said Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard. "We will be working on it overnight and tomorrow."

However, a White House spokesman said that the US would not be providing additional funds.

The IMF has played a key role in the eurozone crisis, providing additional money to Greece, Portugal and the Irish Republic alongside the bailout loans from other eurozone and EU governments.

French President Nicolas Sarkozy also said that countries running large trade surpluses - which include China and Japan - were willing to do more to help boost global growth.

The draft communique referred to actions by these countries to boost their spending.

However, it left open whether the big Asian exporters would allow their currencies to strengthen - something that would hurt their trade competitiveness.


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  • rate this

    Comment number 137.

    "China made clear on Thursday that it would not commit to the EFSF"

    Thtat's a long and a short of it.

  • rate this

    Comment number 136.

    What do you suggest the Greeks pay those unserviceable debts with? They CAN'T repay, obviously.

    If I am sounding sympathetic towards the Greek governments that accrued this huge, unrepayable debt, "cooking the books" along the way, I can assure you I'm not. (They are hardly alone, however; that's Social Democratic governance for you).

    However, the real villains are those who lent the money.

  • rate this

    Comment number 135.

    re: "Just as a brief aside - when did "indexes" become a word? I expect (and arguably deserve) negative ratings for my off topic pedantry but it is annoying when people who write for a living flunk basic literacy."

    I agree, so +1 from me. I observed an even worse example on another site this week where the journalist used "past" when he meant "passed" and "live" when he meant "life".

  • rate this

    Comment number 134.

    Guys it is not so simple....Greek people don't want to leave the eurozone!
    We want the PM to resign, as simple as this!

  • rate this

    Comment number 133.

    It does sound very fine and democratic for Greece to hold a referendum but I don't yet understand what on: the bailout plan, being part of the eurozone, being part of the ECC or what?

    It also sounds like retrospective democracy. Surely Papandreou should have been upfront at the EU leaders talks at the weekend. It may well have affected the outcome of the talks.

  • rate this

    Comment number 132.

    Beware the Greeks taking gifts...

  • rate this

    Comment number 131.

    we want the drachma ...
    we do not want to sell out our country

  • rate this

    Comment number 130.

    95. Rich

    I am not convinced that returning fiscal control to Athens would be the right step. It is the current government that got them into this mess in the first place! If I were Greek, I would prefer controlled austerity controlled by France & Germany, rather than monetary devaluation, rampant inflation and 'gilt' interest rates controlled by the Greek government and currency speculators.

  • rate this

    Comment number 129.

    So now its in the open If France or Germany dont like how you respond you are summond to be told how it will be done .The euro Run by Germany and France for German industry and french farmers . If greece goes down French and German banks ars the biggest losers and if somehow we managed to sort out the cap then watch the French scream . France are only strong because they are Germanys puppy dogs

  • rate this

    Comment number 128.

    I did wonder how long it would take before the Greek PM was threatened in every which way to prevent a referendum taking place.
    It's all turning nasty and changes my perception of European democracy into one of dictatorship.
    No doubt Obama will throw his lot behind it as well.
    All this would be understandable if we could have faith in politicians.
    More fool us if we do.

  • rate this

    Comment number 127.

    Whatever your opinion at least the calibre of discussion on this site is high. Try looking at the same feature on MSN, the level of stupidity and ignorance is truly frightening.

  • rate this

    Comment number 126.

    "Remember that £10 you owe me? I realise you are struggling to pay me back so I will let you off with a fiver as long as you stop wasting money"
    "Can I think about it for a month or two? I'll let you know then whether I'll pay you back anything at all"

  • rate this

    Comment number 125.

    #100. Cosmologic - Sadly the Greeks are not on their own. They can cause a crash like we have never seen before. No country is immune. Once the dominoes start to topple who foresees where it will end?

    Worst case scenario. Total financial collapse. Back to the system of barter pre concept (Dutch?) of National Debt. How will China react to non-payment and the other Sovereign investment countries?

  • rate this

    Comment number 124.

    Who is Mr Hanna anyway? One of those who makes money out of a crisis? He'll be happy if Greece goes bust, that's for sure!!

  • rate this

    Comment number 123.

    Irrespective of what you think about what Greece has done over the years and what they need to do and what they may or may not deserve, this has always been about saving the Euro and not saving Greece, Portugal, Spain or any other country. That is becoming clearer by the day. It's also amazing how a near bankrupt country can bring down the world economy. So much for the capitalists. Go Greece Go!

  • rate this

    Comment number 122.

    For all of you who feel sorry for poor Greece and say they should default (decide not to pay back what they borrowed). The money that they won't be giving back is yours, dummies. Your banks will fail, your pensions funds will lose enormous amounts of money. Your economy will suffer, you and your children will more likely be unemployed because they Greeks decide not to pay their debts.

  • rate this

    Comment number 121.

    Should Greece consider to declare bankruptcy as it would help to erase most of the debts they previously owned?

  • rate this

    Comment number 120.

    All the other so called PIIGS are already looking at Greece's settlement and saying us next. With the city realising that this bailout is not just for this year but will be with us for decades to come. It is not just hurting big investors but the pension funds as well which in turn will hurt us all. Time to end this farce.

  • rate this

    Comment number 119.

    Ireland all over again. 'keep voting till you give me the result I want.' Surely people are going to wake up to the fact that democracy and the EU are not compatible.

  • rate this

    Comment number 118.

    "@28 I voted in the referendum to join the EU - maybe it was before your time?"

    So did I. As has been said here many times that vote was for membership of the European Economic Community not the European Union. National Referendums are new - the first being the 1975 EU referndum - and having established the precedent the major treaty changes since should have been put to the people.


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