Japan grapples with deflation and demographics
Japan's economy is still under pressure. Industrial production has fallen for the fifth month in a row in October and unemployment edged up to 5.1%.
Government measures to help the car industry have ended and the strong yen is hitting exporters. What's more, the country is still gripped by deflation and is facing the challenges of an ageing population.
The BBC's chief economics correspondent, Hugh Pym, reports from Tokyo.