Re-thinking Big Australia the immigration policy
It has the sixth biggest land mass of any country in the world, but it is not even in the top fifty when it comes to population.
So Australia's ousted Prime Minister Kevin Rudd made a Big Australia policy based on high rates of immigration, a signature issue.
But, in one of her first acts as new Prime Minister, Julia Gillard has put a brake on the surge, and a review of the policy.
The business community says the country has an ageing population and needs new arrivals.
Nick Bryant reports on Australia's heated population debate.