The edges of this butterfly's wings are ragged in appearance. On the underside of the wing is a small white mark in the shape of a comma.
Commas have orange-brown wings with a pattern of darker markings. The edges of the wings are ragged in appearance. On the underside of the wing is a small white mark in the shape of a comma.
The caterpillars are black with a red band along each side and a large white patch on the rear part of the back (which camouflages them by giving them the appearance of a bird dropping). They have rows of spines along the back and sides.
They inhabit Europe, North Africa and Asia.
Adults can be seen flying in woodland clearings, hedgerows and gardens.
Adult commas feed from flowers such as dandelions and thistles. In late summer they often feed on fallen fruit, such as apples. Caterpillars feed on shoots of nettle, blackcurrant, hazel, hop and elm.
Adults hibernate during winter and emerge in early spring.
This butterfly has two to three generations between May and October.
Commas are not listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List 2000.