Long-tailed macaque, crab-eating monkey, Java monkey, cynomolgus monkey
Long-tailed macaques are among the most commonly used laboratory animal, second only to the rhesus monkey. They were used extensively in studies leading to the development of the polio vaccine.
Long-tailed macaques live for about four years in the wild, although in captivity, they can live for up to 38 years.
Body length: 38-55cm, Tail length: 40-65cm, Weight: Males 5-9kg, Females 3-6kg.
Long-tailed macaques have short arms and legs. They are born with black fur, but this turns to a yellow green, grey-green or reddish-brown shade as they mature. They have a dark muzzle and blue abdominal skin.
They inhabit Southern Indochina, Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines and the Nicobar islands (India).
They prefer to live in coastal, mangrove, swamp and riverine forest up to 2000m.
Long-tailed macaques feed on buds, fruits, insects, crustaceans, spiders and cereals.
They are diurnal (active during the day) and arboreal (tree-living). Long-tailed macaques are tolerant of humans and may be found near villages. They live in multi-male and multi-female groups, with an average of 2.5 females to every male in a typical troop. Troop size can range from 20-60 individuals, and these are centred around the 'Alpha' female. Long-tailed macaques swim well and jump into water from nearby trees. They tend to sleep in the branches of trees that overhang water, in order to avoid predators (clouded leopards and pythons). They have a fixed daily pattern of behaviour. They start their morning foraging, but stop a few hours before mid-day, to rest. During this time they may sleep, groom and play. They forage again in the afternoon, before returning to base at around 4pm. After a couple more hours of play, they climb into their sleeping trees for the night.
After a gestation period of 167-193 days, the female gives birth to one infant. Their weight at birth is 350g.
Long-tailed macaques are listed as Lower Risk by the 2000 IUCN Red List.