Neanderthals looked much like modern humans only shorter, more heavily built and much stronger, particularly in the arms and hands. Their skulls show that they had no chin and their foreheads sloped backwards. The brain case was lower but longer housing a slightly larger brain than that of modern humans. As almost exclusively carnivorous, both male and female Neanderthals hunted. Evidence of a huge number of injuries - like those sometimes seen in today's rodeo riders - suggests that hunting involved dangerously close contact with large prey animals.

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