Fens are rare wildlife 'hotspot', a new report finds

Ouse washes Ouse Washes is a Special Area of Conservation

Related Stories

The Fens are home to 25% of Britain's rarest wildlife and 13 globally rare species, according to a new report.

Researchers from the University of East Anglia studied over one million records collected by scientists and amateur enthusiasts that date back to 1670.

The Fens Biodiversity Audit details evidence of 13,474 species of plants, insects, birds, fish and mammals.

The area covered 3,800 km sq, spanning the Fenlands of Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire.

Christopher Panter, an ecologist from the school of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia and one of the authors of the audit, commented: "One of the most surprising things was that, despite it being a very large area, most of the area was previously unrecorded."

Fantastic fens

Dolomedes fen raft spider

Data was collected from well-known fen sites such as Chippenham, Woodwalton and Wicken Fens, as well as less-known sites such as Holme, Baston and Thurlby Fens, and gravel pits such as Dogsthorpe Star Pit.

Fen wildlife in figures

Results show that the area is of global importance. The Fens are home to 13 species that are included on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of threatened species.

The European eel is listed as critically endangered, while the white-clawed crayfish is currently listed as endangered.

Other threatened species include black-tailed godwits, otters, Barbastelle bats and Desmoulin's whorl snail.

Researchers also found 82 species that are of significance to the area.

Mr Panter said, "Of the 82 species, we identified around half for which the Fens are a 'primary stronghold'. We quantified this as where 50% or more of a species occur in the area".

White-clawed crayfish The white-clawed crayfish is classed as endangered on the IUCN Red List

Within this number are a further 20 species that are found virtually nowhere elsewhere in the UK, such as the fen ragwort and a subspecies of the heath dog-violet, plus the Rosser's sac spider, feather-winged beetles, a snail-killing fly Anticheta obviliosa and the Cambridge groundling moth.

Of the total species recorded, researchers found 30 species of rare hoverflies and 92 rare water beetles.

But the study highlights that much of the Fens' important biodiversity has been lost. Mr Panter explained, "100 species of birds, bees and butterflies have been lost from the area since 1670 - the period that the audit covers".

This number includes 30 flowering plants, 10 beetles, 17 moths and six butterflies that are absent from the Fens due to local or UK extinction.

A total of 504 rare species have not been recorded in the last 25 years.

Fen ragwort Fen ragwort is exclusive to the area
The stakes are high

Researchers identified which specific wetland habitats were most favoured by wildlife in the Fens.

Mr Panter said, "This was mainly bright, well-vegetated areas, but reed beds with tall vegetation, dead herbaceous stems and detritus seemed to be very important".

The audit also shows how management could be improved for wildlife and where new management techniques could be introduced.

"This study gives an understanding of the ecological requirements of hundreds of rare species so that conservation can be cost-effective," said Mr Panter.

Work is now under way to restore the wetland complex at both existing and new sites.

Join BBC Nature on Facebook and Twitter @BBCNature.

More on This Story

Related Stories

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external Internet sites

More from nature

  • Cardinal fish and ostracodFish filmed spitting 'fireworks'

    Film crew captures ostracods' spectacular defensive lightshow that makes predatory fish spit them out.

  • Arapaima'Locally extinct'

    A giant fish which used to dominate the Amazon river is now absent in many areas

  • DragonflyRapid reactions

    Dragonfly's super quick reactions recorded in slow motion by BBC film-makers

  • Wingless adult male of the midge Belgica antarcticaExtreme survivor

    Antarctic midge's small genome may be an adaptation to its extreme environment

  • Myotis midastactus specimen (previously identified as Myotis simus)Golden discovery

    A bat from Bolivia is described as a new species by scientists

  • Dinosaurs 'shrank' to become birds

    Huge meat-eating, land-living dinosaurs evolved into birds by constantly shrinking for over 50 million years, new research shows.

  • Would we starve without bees?

    Honey bees are under threat, and as pollination significantly contributes to the food we eat, what would we do without them?

  • Eggshells may act like 'sunblock'

    Birds' eggs show adaptations in pigment concentration and thickness to allow the right amount of sun for embryos, scientists say.

  • Female shrimps are more aggressive

    Female snapping shrimps are more aggressive than males when defending their territories despite their smaller claw size, a study shows.

BBC iWonder

  • Honey bee close-upInsect intelligence

    Are honey bees as smart as your sat nav?

  • Tyrannosaurus rex skull (c) Mark Williamson / Science Photo LibraryDinosaur dynasty

    One group of dinosaurs survived and their descendants can be seen all around us today

  • Brown rat cluse upRise of the rodent

    Reports of giant, 'super rats' are filling the headlines. But why are we being overrun by rats?

  • Cuckoo portraitHoliday hotspot

    What makes the UK such an attractive destination for visiting wildlife?

There have been 75 solar eclipses and 167 major volcanic eruptions in my lifetime

Nicole Malliotakis on Twitter comments on the events that have happened since she was born by using our personalised Your Life on Earth interactive infographic.

Get Inspired


More Nature Activities >

Copyright © 2015 BBC. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Read more.

This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so.