War II the herring industry declined, until the failure of the seasonal
herring shoals marked its end.
then headed for Northern waters within the Arctic Circle. Three weeks
at sea and three days leave was a common shift pattern.
and survival were the joint aims of these trawlermen, but health and safety
procedures were sadly deficient.
of icing and capsize were ever present. Infections were common being caused
by knife cuts, frayed hawsers and even fish bones.
was a common complaint, and in the absence of qualified medical help,
the loss of fingers was commonplace and loss of life was all too common.
a huge investment in large ocean going trawlers fitted out with sonar
fish finding technology.
'Cod war' took place in 1958, when Iceland, extended its coastal fishing
limit, from 4 miles, to 12 miles.
Cod War started in 1972 when Iceland extended its coastal non-fishing
limit to 50 miles.
with an agreement between the two countries that limited British fishing
to restricted areas, within the 50-mile limit.
was valid for two years and expired on November 13 1975, when the third
"Cod War" started.
1975, and June 1976, the cod brought two NATO allies to the brink of war.
and Iceland confronted each other as Iceland proclaimed its authority
to 200 miles from its coastline.
had their nets cut by Icelandic Coast Guard vessels and there were numerous
rammings between Icelandic ships and British trawlers and frigates.
that it was merely enforcing what would soon be international law.
The USA offered
to mediate, but it was NATO intercession that helped to end the conflict.
Great Britain came to agreement on June 2 1976. A maximum of 24 British
trawlers were allowed inside the 200-mile limit.
cod catch was limited to 50,000 tons.
led to unemployment for 1,500 fishermen together with 7,500 onshore workers.
Fisheries Policy marks the End
By the 1930s,
British fishermen bought home 300,000 tonnes of cod annually. EU officials
say today there are only 70,000 tonnes of adult cod left in the North
insist they have secured a good deal, balancing the needs of fishermen
with the demands of conservation.
quotas have to be cut by up to 40% to preserve depleting stocks.
is the fear that the European fishing industry could be wiped out.
blame the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) agreed in Brussels in 1983 for
the root of their troubles.
up a system of quotas for each member state to conserve depleting fish
It also established
a coastal band around the shores of each country reserved for local fishermen.