James Keane (Irish: Séamus Ó Catháin; 7 February 1948) is an Irish traditional musician and accordion player. The Italian Castagnari company issued and continues a line of signature instruments called keanebox in his honor.
James Keane was born in Drimnagh, south Dublin City in Co Dublin. He reportedly began playing at age six, and lilting since before he could talk. The Keane house in Dublin was a musical landmark on the traditional music scene in the 1950s and 1960s. Keane's mother and father were both fiddle players from musical communities in County Longford and County Clare, and would play host to the legendary players who traveled from all over Ireland to perform in the capital city. These guests greatly affected James and his brother Seán Keane, the fiddler with the Chieftains, as did their summer trips to Longford and Clare where they encountered the music at its roots.
By the age of ten, James had become a fixture on the late 1950s Dublin traditional scene regularly performing with Séamus Ennis, Leo Rowsome, Sonny Brogan and Tommy Reck, honing his skills under their guidance. While still in his early teens, James co-founded what would become one of Ireland's most heralded music ensembles, the Castle Céilí Band with Mick O'Connor, his brother and others. The band would go on to win numerous Oireachtas competitions, and the All-Ireland Senior Céilí Band competition in Thurles in 1965.