Henry Purcell
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1659-09-10
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Henry Purcell

Biography

Born in London in 1659, Henry Purcell was the son of a musician in the retinue of Charles II, and it was royal service that was largely to be his world as well. By the time he was 10 he ...

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Biography

Born in London in 1659, Henry Purcell was the son of a musician in the retinue of Charles II, and it was royal service that was largely to be his world as well. By the time he was 10 he was a chorister at the Chapel Royal, and in 1673, when his voice broke, he became for a while an unpaid assistant to the keeper of the king’s instruments.

His first formal royal appointment came in 1677, when he was created composer-in-ordinary for the violins (in succession to Matthew Locke), and in 1682 he was appointed as one of the organists at the Chapel Royal. In between, he had also become organist of Westminster Abbey (in succession to his teacher and friend, John Blow).

The last years of Charles’s reign were when Purcell composed the bulk of his outstanding output of English church music, culminating in the superb anthems he supplied for the coronation of Charles’s successor, James II, in 1685. His court connections were also responsible for the numerous odes he composed for royal occasions such as birthdays and homecomings, an unpromising genre that he managed to raise to unwonted heights.

The 1680s also saw him beginning to write for the theatre, contributing songs and instrumental pieces to plays by such distinguished Restoration dramatists as Dryden, Congreve and D’Urfey. But it was in 1690 that his theatrical career really took off with the success of Dioclesian, his first venture into the peculiarly English genre of the time, known today as ‘semi-opera’, in which music is mixed with speech. This was followed over the next few years by three works – King Arthur (with words by Dryden); The Fairy Queen (loosely based on A Midsummer Night’s Dream); and The Indian Queen (words again by Dryden) – all written in a similar style.

It is not clear for what purpose Purcell wrote his only through-composed opera, Dido and Aeneas; its first known performance was by pupils at a girls’ boarding school in Chelsea in 1689, but it may have been first produced as a court entertainment some years earlier.

Purcell occupies a central position in British music. More than 300 years after his death he is still arguably the country’s greatest composer, and his music continues to provide successors with both inspiration and a point of cultural identification. Apparent in his church music, stage works and solo songs alike are an exquisite talent for English word-setting, a gift for attractive melody and a capacity for searing expressiveness that have attracted commendation from his own time to ours; he was acclaimed in his own day as ‘the English Orpheus’ and Holst, Vaughan Williams, Britten and Tippett were among his greatest 20th-century admirers. His untimely death at the age of 36 left Britain without a native composer of genius until the arrival of Elgar two centuries later.

Profile © Lindsay Kemp

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Henry Purcell
Chacony a 4 for strings in G minor (Z.730)
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Chacony a 4 for strings in G minor (Z.730)
Henry Purcell
Four Works
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Four Works
Henry Purcell
Ah Belinda from Dido and Aeneas
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Ah Belinda from Dido and Aeneas
Henry Purcell
Oedipus - incidental music to Act 3 (Z.583), no.2; Music for a while
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Oedipus - incidental music to Act 3 (Z.583), no.2; Music for a while
Henry Purcell
Thy hand Belinda - When I am laid in earth (from Dido and Aeneas)
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Thy hand Belinda - When I am laid in earth (from Dido and Aeneas)
Henry Purcell
Suite from The Fairy Queen
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Suite from The Fairy Queen
Henry Purcell
Evening Hymn
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Evening Hymn
Henry Purcell
Fantazia No. 3 in 3 parts
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Fantazia No. 3 in 3 parts
Henry Purcell
The Fairy Queen (Z.629), [Act 4] no.27; Symphony (Sonata while the sun rises)
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The Fairy Queen (Z.629), [Act 4] no.27; Symphony (Sonata while the sun rises)
Henry Purcell
Gentle Shepherds, You that Know Z.464
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Gentle Shepherds, You that Know Z.464
Henry Purcell
Seven works by Purcell and Playford
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Seven works by Purcell and Playford
Henry Purcell
Music for a while
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Music for a while
Henry Purcell
Symphony to Act 4 (The Fairy Queen)
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Symphony to Act 4 (The Fairy Queen)
Henry Purcell
Of all the instruments that are
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Of all the instruments that are
Henry Purcell
"See, see, even Night herself is here" (Z.62/11) from The Fairy Queen
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"See, see, even Night herself is here" (Z.62/11) from The Fairy Queen
Henry Purcell
Fantasia No.7 in C minor, Z.738
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Fantasia No.7 in C minor, Z.738
Henry Purcell
Behold, I bring you glad tidings
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Behold, I bring you glad tidings
Henry Purcell
Fantazia 6
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Fantazia 6
Henry Purcell
The Fairy Queen - Symphony... arr. Balsom
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The Fairy Queen - Symphony... arr. Balsom
Henry Purcell
King Arthur, or The British worthy (Z.628), Act 3 sc.2, no.24; See, we assemble
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King Arthur, or The British worthy (Z.628), Act 3 sc.2, no.24; See, we assemble
Henry Purcell
Jehovah, quam multi sunt
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Jehovah, quam multi sunt
Henry Purcell
If music be the food of love, Z.379C
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If music be the food of love, Z.379C
Henry Purcell
Chaconne, from King Arthur (Act 5 Scene 2)
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Chaconne, from King Arthur (Act 5 Scene 2)
Johann Caspar Seyfert, Henry Purcell, Axel Wolf & Jan Kobow
Amor vincit omnia (Seyfert); Oh Solitude (Purcell)
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Amor vincit omnia (Seyfert); Oh Solitude (Purcell)
Henry Purcell
Sonata for trumpet and strings, Z850
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Sonata for trumpet and strings, Z850
Henry Purcell
Dido's lament (When I am laid in earth), arr. David Rees-Williams
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Dido's lament (When I am laid in earth), arr. David Rees-Williams
Henry Purcell
A Prince of glorious race descended from Who can from Joy refrain? (Z.342)
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A Prince of glorious race descended from Who can from Joy refrain? (Z.342)
Henry Purcell
Hear My Prayer, O Lord
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Hear My Prayer, O Lord
Henry Purcell
'Nymphs and shepherds, come away', from The Libertine
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'Nymphs and shepherds, come away', from The Libertine
Henry Purcell
Rejoice in the Lord alway, Z.49 (Bell Anthem)
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Rejoice in the Lord alway, Z.49 (Bell Anthem)
Add music you love and enjoy it
Playlists featuring Henry Purcell
Essential Classics: Guest Choices
Essential Classics: Guest Choices
Radio 3 Breakfast: Music Box
Radio 3 Breakfast: Music Box
20 Years of Private Passions
20 Years of Private Passions
The Story of Music in 50 Pieces
The Story of Music in 50 Pieces


Henry Purcell Biography

Born in London in 1659, Henry Purcell was the son of a musician in the retinue of Charles II, and it was royal service that was largely to be his world as well. By the time he was 10 he was a chorister at the Chapel Royal, and in 1673, when his voice broke, he became for a while an unpaid assistant to the keeper of the king’s instruments.

His first formal royal appointment came in 1677, when he was created composer-in-ordinary for the violins (in succession to Matthew Locke), and in 1682 he was appointed as one of the organists at the Chapel Royal. In between, he had also become organist of Westminster Abbey (in succession to his teacher and friend, John Blow).

The last years of Charles’s reign were when Purcell composed the bulk of his outstanding output of English church music, culminating in the superb anthems he supplied for the coronation of Charles’s successor, James II, in 1685. His court connections were also responsible for the numerous odes he composed for royal occasions such as birthdays and homecomings, an unpromising genre that he managed to raise to unwonted heights.

The 1680s also saw him beginning to write for the theatre, contributing songs and instrumental pieces to plays by such distinguished Restoration dramatists as Dryden, Congreve and D’Urfey. But it was in 1690 that his theatrical career really took off with the success of Dioclesian, his first venture into the peculiarly English genre of the time, known today as ‘semi-opera’, in which music is mixed with speech. This was followed over the next few years by three works – King Arthur (with words by Dryden); The Fairy Queen (loosely based on A Midsummer Night’s Dream); and The Indian Queen (words again by Dryden) – all written in a similar style.

It is not clear for what purpose Purcell wrote his only through-composed opera, Dido and Aeneas; its first known performance was by pupils at a girls’ boarding school in Chelsea in 1689, but it may have been first produced as a court entertainment some years earlier.

Purcell occupies a central position in British music. More than 300 years after his death he is still arguably the country’s greatest composer, and his music continues to provide successors with both inspiration and a point of cultural identification. Apparent in his church music, stage works and solo songs alike are an exquisite talent for English word-setting, a gift for attractive melody and a capacity for searing expressiveness that have attracted commendation from his own time to ours; he was acclaimed in his own day as ‘the English Orpheus’ and Holst, Vaughan Williams, Britten and Tippett were among his greatest 20th-century admirers. His untimely death at the age of 36 left Britain without a native composer of genius until the arrival of Elgar two centuries later.

Profile © Lindsay Kemp

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