The Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse is a French orchestra based in Toulouse. It acts as both a symphony orchestra whose main residence is Toulouse's Halle aux Grains, and the permanent orchestra of the Théâtre du Capitole in Toulouse.
Initially with the name Orchestre du Capitole de Toulouse, past music directors of the orchestra have included André Cluytens (beginning in 1932) and Georges Prêtre (1951–1955). The Orchestre du Capitole rose to prominence during Michel Plasson's tenure as music director, from 1968 to 2003.
In 1974, Plasson chose the Halle aux Grains, a former market converted into an arena, to become the orchestra's residence. Until then, the orchestra was not used to giving concerts but was instead confined to the Capitole's pit, and had a very low reputation. Within twelve years, the orchestra had improved enough to qualify to have the term "national" in its name, which it acquired in 1980.
Plasson's flamboyant personality, his insistence on playing and recording the French repertoire, especially rarely played pieces, and his record deal with EMI, combined to make the orchestra the "reference" French orchestra, the most visible and most visibly French, with approximately one hundred records released. Natalie Dessay made her debut with the Capitole and still performs regularly with the orchestra.