Claude Debussy Biography (BBC)
Charting Debussy’s education tells us little about his roots. His rebellion against his teacher’s admonishment of his delight in a series of ‘forbidden’ harmonies resulted in his conclusion that ‘mon plaisir’ was the only rule: individuality and hedonism were all that mattered. His real teachers were close friends, lovers (sometimes), literature of many sorts and, perhaps, painting.
In his youth he was introduced to contemporary French poetry – particularly that of Banville, Verlaine and Mallarmé – through a relationship with an older woman. From song-writing he moved on to cantatas such as La damoiselle élue, a setting of a poem by the English Pre-Raphaelite poet-painter Rossetti. Debussy’s one outstanding operatic venture, Pelléas et Mélisande, occupied him for much of the 1890s, but in this decade he also deepened his ability to parallel the work of contemporary poets, both in songs and in the purely orchestral Prélude à L’après-midi d’un faune.
Another side of his output has often been compared to Impressionist painting. But the painter whose work is closer to Debussy’s ideas was James McNeill Whistler, whose series of works entitled Nocturnes may be connected to the composer’s orchestral triptych of 1897–9.
Never complacent and always seeking new challenges in every aspect of composition, in the new century he would turn to the evocation of entirely different places. Most celebrated is his only piece that resembles a symphony: La mer. It captures not only the sounds and rhythms of the sea, but also the changing weather and time of day. Further exploits – including the orchestral Images – would take Debussy to Spain.
Alongside these masterpieces of orchestral evocation, Debussy also developed a highly personal piano style. Perhaps the first piece to show a marked difference from his earlier piano music was the first piece from the two books of Images for piano, ‘Reflets dans l’eau’. Its rippling arpeggios, bathed in pedal, pioneered a new Impressionist piano style.
In the two books of Préludes for piano Debussy showed the infinite variety of his imagination. Enigmatically printed with the titles at the end rather than at the beginning, almost all the pieces have some kind of extramusical association: perhaps with a place, or a literary idea. The sequel to the Préludes was a set of pieces with no associations other than to themselves: a set of 12 piano Études.
Among the composer’s last works, the ballet Jeux is regarded as a highlight, and of the six planned late sonatas only three were written. Of the three unwritten sonatas, that for the extraordinary combination of oboe, horn and harpsichord must rank among the most lamented of planned works never to have reached fruition.
Profile © Richard Langham Smith
Claude Debussy Biography (Wikipedia)
Claude-Achille Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer. Along with Maurice Ravel, he was one of the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music, though he himself disliked the term when applied to his compositions. He was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in his native France in 1903. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.
Debussy's music is noted for its sensory content and frequent usage of nontraditional tonalities. The prominent French literary style of his period was known as Symbolism, and this movement directly inspired Debussy both as a composer and as an active cultural participant.
- Debussy: La mer (extract)http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03ntq4p.jpghttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03ntq4p.jpg2016-04-17T11:00:00.000ZPreview of music performed at the BBC Promshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p03nnkx7
Debussy: La mer (extract)
- Debussyhttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03jn6sm.jpghttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p03jn6sm.jpg2016-02-26T13:00:00.000ZDonald Macleod discusses the fruits of a number of Debussy's important friendshipshttp://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p03knync
- Debussy: Nocturneshttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01bqk7d.jpghttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01bqk7d.jpg2016-01-23T14:09:00.000ZJulian Johnson recommends a recording of Debussy's Nocturnes.http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p03gbqmg
- Debussy: Feux d'artifice (extract)http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02mp12g.jpghttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p02mp12g.jpg2015-04-23T09:00:00.000ZAn extract from Debussy's Feux d'artifice.http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p02mp13f
Debussy: Feux d'artifice (extract)
- Melodyhttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01zv2c9.jpghttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01zv2c9.jpg2014-05-27T09:26:00.000ZLeonard Slatkin explores a basic element of music: melody.http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p01zv2cp
- Claude Debussy - life, loves and passion for the pianohttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01yng0q.jpghttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01yng0q.jpg2014-05-07T15:23:00.000ZDonald Macleod focuses on French composer and pianist Claude Debussy, examining his life, loves and passion for the piano.http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p01yng0r
Claude Debussy - life, loves and passion for the piano
- Debussy: Estampeshttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01w65pp.jpghttp://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/240x135/p01w65pp.jpg2014-03-25T11:14:00.000ZHoward Goodall and Suzy Klein discuss Pagodes from Debussy's Estampes.http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/audiovideo/popular/p01w65ps
Claude Debussy Performances