Claude Debussy

Born 22 August 1862. Died 25 March 1918.
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Debussy: La Mer

The Seoul Philharmonic perform Debussy's La Mer.

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Charting Debussy’s education tells us little about his roots. His rebellion against his teacher’s admonishment of his delight in a series of ‘forbidden’ harmonies resulted in his conclusion that ‘mon plaisir’ was the only rule: individuality and hedonism were all that mattered. His real teachers were close friends, lovers (sometimes), literature of many sorts and, perhaps, painting.

In his youth he was introduced to contemporary French poetry – particularly that of Banville, Verlaine and Mallarmé – through a relationship with an older woman. From song-writing he moved on to cantatas such as La damoiselle élue, a setting of a poem by the English Pre-Raphaelite poet-painter Rossetti. Debussy’s one outstanding operatic venture, Pelléas et Mélisande, occupied him for much of the 1890s, but in this decade he also deepened his ability to parallel the work of contemporary poets, both in songs and in the purely orchestral Prélude à L’après-midi d’un faune.

Another side of his output has often been compared to Impressionist painting. But the painter whose work is closer to Debussy’s ideas was James McNeill Whistler, whose series of works entitled Nocturnes may be connected to the composer’s orchestral triptych of 1897–9.

Never complacent and always seeking new challenges in every aspect of composition, in the new century he would turn to the evocation of entirely different places. Most celebrated is his only piece that resembles a symphony: La mer. It captures not only the sounds and rhythms of the sea, but also the changing weather and time of day. Further exploits – including the orchestral Images – would take Debussy to Spain.

Alongside these masterpieces of orchestral evocation, Debussy also developed a highly personal piano style. Perhaps the first piece to show a marked difference from his earlier piano music was the first piece from the two books of Images for piano, ‘Reflets dans l’eau’. Its rippling arpeggios, bathed in pedal, pioneered a new Impressionist piano style.

In the two books of Préludes for piano Debussy showed the infinite variety of his imagination. Enigmatically printed with the titles at the end rather than at the beginning, almost all the pieces have some kind of extramusical association: perhaps with a place, or a literary idea. The sequel to the Préludes was a set of pieces with no associations other than to themselves: a set of 12 piano Études.

Among the composer’s last works, the ballet Jeux is regarded as a highlight, and of the six planned late sonatas only three were written. Of the three unwritten sonatas, that for the extraordinary combination of oboe, horn and harpsichord must rank among the most lamented of planned works never to have reached fruition.

Profile © Richard Langham Smith

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BBC Reviews

  1. Review of String Quartet, Piano Trio, Deux Danses, Reverie

    String Quartet, Piano Trio, Deux Danses, Reverie 2012

    Reviewed by Charlotte Gardner
    A confident, vital, lyrical reading of the Quartet, plus delightful extras.
  2. Review of Debussy Piano Music Volume IV: 12 Études (piano: Pascal Rogé)

    Debussy Piano Music Volume IV: 12 Études (piano: Pascal Rogé) 2010

    Reviewed by Graham Rogers
    Packed with remarkable insights that will entrance connoisseurs of the Études.
  3. Review of Complete Works for Piano, Volume 5 (feat. pianist: Jean-Efflam Bavouzet)

    Complete Works for Piano, Volume 5 (feat. pianist: Jean-Efflam Bavouzet) 2009

    Reviewed by Charlotte Gardner
    A musical adventure, and Bavouzet has more than achieved what he set out to do.
  4. Review of La Mer, Preludes

    La Mer, Preludes 2007

    Reviewed by Andrew McGregor
    Let’s hope it won’t be long before we can hear the second half of the series.
  5. Review of Pélleas et Mélisande

    Pélleas et Mélisande 2007

    Reviewed by John Armstrong
    ...there's a delicious feeling of air around the recording, it all feels effortlessly...
  6. Review of The Complete Preludes

    The Complete Preludes 2006

    Reviewed by Andrew McGregor
    Strongly, indeed, urgently recommended
  7. Review of Piano Music (Vol 3)

    Piano Music (Vol 3) 2005

    Reviewed by Andrew McGregor
    Debussy's second book of Preludes demands the nimblest of musical minds and a...
  8. Review of Preludes I and II

    Preludes I and II 2005

    Reviewed by Andrew McGregor
    Pascal Rogé makes this collection all the more memorable with his effortless...
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