Ludwig van Beethoven
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1770-12-17
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Ludwig van Beethoven

Biography

The popular image of Beethoven as a morose individual who shunned society is only partly true. He did have a serious outlook on life, and in later years he had difficulty mixing with people because of his deafness, which emerged ...

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Biography

The popular image of Beethoven as a morose individual who shunned society is only partly true. He did have a serious outlook on life, and in later years he had difficulty mixing with people because of his deafness, which emerged in his late twenties and gradually increased thereafter till his death. Yet he loved company, and had a ready wit. His letters contain many puns, and it was he who introduced the scherzo (literally, ‘joke’) into the symphony when he used one in his Symphony No. 2 instead of the customary minuet.

This Second Symphony already goes well beyond the models of Haydn and Mozart, the two chief influences on his style. Building on their example Beethoven continually strove to stretch the bounds of music to new limits, whether in his seven surviving concertos, 16 string quartets, 35 piano sonatas (including three very early ones) or other works.

Each of his nine symphonies (and an incipient tenth) is completely different from any previous one, and he showed similar originality in every major genre of the time, from his only opera Fidelio and his mighty Missa solemnis to his numerous settings of folk songs, which he treated in an entirely novel way. He achieved his goal through a combination of natural genius and sheer hard work: every one of his major compositions is the result of painstaking refinement, evident in the many thousands of pages of musical sketches that he wrote.

It is not always realised, however, that Beethoven was extraordinary in other ways too. Having no wife or family of his own, he spent enormous energy on helping his nephew, and he was deeply religious. Indeed his goodness and kindness were so evident to his contemporaries that at least three of them independently asserted that he was even greater as a human being than as a musician. Considering that many regard him as the greatest composer in history, such praise is astonishing.

Beethoven also responded strikingly to political upheavals – the French Revolution and the ensuing Napoleonic wars. Although no political activist, he made his hatred of tyranny very plain in works such as Fidelio and his music for Goethe’s play Egmont.

Yet it is the quality of his music that has ensured his lasting reputation. Although its novelty initially puzzled some of his contemporaries, repeated hearings and study have shown that it is based on firm foundations. Its combination of beauty and unpredictability, extreme emotional depth and intellectual rigour, across so many genres, is unsurpassed and probably always will be.

Profile © Barry Cooper

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Ludwig van Beethoven
Symphony No.6 in F, Op.68 (3rd mvt: Allegro
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Symphony No.6 in F, Op.68 (3rd mvt: Allegro
Ludwig van Beethoven
Symphony no. 7 (Op.92) in A major, 4th movement; Allegro con brio
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Symphony no. 7 (Op.92) in A major, 4th movement; Allegro con brio
Ludwig van Beethoven
Bagatelle No. 1 in E flat major, Op. 33 and No. 6 in E flat major, Op. 126
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Bagatelle No. 1 in E flat major, Op. 33 and No. 6 in E flat major, Op. 126
Ludwig van Beethoven
Final Movt - String Quartet in C 'Razumovsky' Op.59 No.3
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Final Movt - String Quartet in C 'Razumovsky' Op.59 No.3
Ludwig van Beethoven
Minuet, from Septet, Op 20
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Minuet, from Septet, Op 20
Ludwig van Beethoven
Sonata In F Major Op.17 For Horn (Or Cello) And Piano
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Sonata In F Major Op.17 For Horn (Or Cello) And Piano
Ludwig van Beethoven
12 Irish Songs, WoO 153: O might I but my Patrick love
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12 Irish Songs, WoO 153: O might I but my Patrick love
Ludwig van Beethoven
12 Irish Songs, WoO 153: The British Light Dragoons
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12 Irish Songs, WoO 153: The British Light Dragoons
Ludwig van Beethoven
12 Scottish Songs, WoO156: Polly Stewart
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12 Scottish Songs, WoO156: Polly Stewart
Ludwig van Beethoven
Bagatelle in A minor "Fur Elise" (WoO.59)
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Bagatelle in A minor "Fur Elise" (WoO.59)
Ludwig van Beethoven
Quartet in F major Op.18`1 arr string orchestra
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Quartet in F major Op.18`1 arr string orchestra
Ludwig van Beethoven
Variations and Fugue for Piano in E flat major, Op 35 'Eroica Variations'
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Variations and Fugue for Piano in E flat major, Op 35 'Eroica Variations'
Ludwig van Beethoven
Symphony No.5 in C minor, Op.67
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Symphony No.5 in C minor, Op.67
Ludwig van Beethoven
Piano Sonata in C minor, Op 13 'Pathetique'
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Piano Sonata in C minor, Op 13 'Pathetique'
Ludwig van Beethoven
Symphony no. 4 in B flat major Op.60
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Symphony no. 4 in B flat major Op.60
Ludwig van Beethoven
32 Variationen in C minor (WoO 80)
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32 Variationen in C minor (WoO 80)
Ludwig van Beethoven
String Quartet in F major, Op 59 No 1
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String Quartet in F major, Op 59 No 1
Ludwig van Beethoven
Trio for strings (Op.9`1) in G major
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Trio for strings (Op.9`1) in G major
Ludwig van Beethoven
Agnus Dei (Mass in C)
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Agnus Dei (Mass in C)
Ludwig van Beethoven
Benedictus (Mass in C)
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Benedictus (Mass in C)
Ludwig van Beethoven
Gloria (Mass in C)
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Gloria (Mass in C)
Ludwig van Beethoven
Symphony no.5 in C minor, Op.67 (2nd mvt: Andante)
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Symphony no.5 in C minor, Op.67 (2nd mvt: Andante)
Add music you love and enjoy it
Playlists featuring Ludwig van Beethoven
Radio 3 Breakfast: Music Box
Radio 3 Breakfast: Music Box
Essential Classics: Guest Choices
Essential Classics: Guest Choices
Nick Grimshaw
Nick Grimshaw
Music With 'The Tingle Factor'
Music With 'The Tingle Factor'

Latest Ludwig van Beethoven News


Ludwig van Beethoven Biography

The popular image of Beethoven as a morose individual who shunned society is only partly true. He did have a serious outlook on life, and in later years he had difficulty mixing with people because of his deafness, which emerged in his late twenties and gradually increased thereafter till his death. Yet he loved company, and had a ready wit. His letters contain many puns, and it was he who introduced the scherzo (literally, ‘joke’) into the symphony when he used one in his Symphony No. 2 instead of the customary minuet.

This Second Symphony already goes well beyond the models of Haydn and Mozart, the two chief influences on his style. Building on their example Beethoven continually strove to stretch the bounds of music to new limits, whether in his seven surviving concertos, 16 string quartets, 35 piano sonatas (including three very early ones) or other works.

Each of his nine symphonies (and an incipient tenth) is completely different from any previous one, and he showed similar originality in every major genre of the time, from his only opera Fidelio and his mighty Missa solemnis to his numerous settings of folk songs, which he treated in an entirely novel way. He achieved his goal through a combination of natural genius and sheer hard work: every one of his major compositions is the result of painstaking refinement, evident in the many thousands of pages of musical sketches that he wrote.

It is not always realised, however, that Beethoven was extraordinary in other ways too. Having no wife or family of his own, he spent enormous energy on helping his nephew, and he was deeply religious. Indeed his goodness and kindness were so evident to his contemporaries that at least three of them independently asserted that he was even greater as a human being than as a musician. Considering that many regard him as the greatest composer in history, such praise is astonishing.

Beethoven also responded strikingly to political upheavals – the French Revolution and the ensuing Napoleonic wars. Although no political activist, he made his hatred of tyranny very plain in works such as Fidelio and his music for Goethe’s play Egmont.

Yet it is the quality of his music that has ensured his lasting reputation. Although its novelty initially puzzled some of his contemporaries, repeated hearings and study have shown that it is based on firm foundations. Its combination of beauty and unpredictability, extreme emotional depth and intellectual rigour, across so many genres, is unsurpassed and probably always will be.

Profile © Barry Cooper

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